Home          Your notes are welcome: Editor@UpperWindpower.com             Most recent edit: Friday August 22, 2014
Estimated % completed toward goal for  this report project: 5%. All are welcome to advance this file.

This file is a fresh project to gather a summary of
MegaScale AWES*
Start: http://tinyurl.com/MegaScaleInEnergyKiteSystems
Be not timid;  go even beyond utility-scale AWES.
Review the nation-scale AWES
and even the Whole-earth AWES space.
Project is open and ongoing. Inputs from EVERY stakeholder is invited. All 900+ of you, plus anyone else interested, are invited to send description of MegaScale AWES.

*Megascale AWES are potentially able to rate at least 10 MW per integrated flying unit
 without pushing up against any ultimate scaling limits. 

Working space:
  1. Cool IP


    "Super Carousel" AWES with high circumferential velocity issues resolved

    Megascale "Spin-Basket" Persistent Flight Method (Polygonal Cableway Driven) · Kixel, kixels ... MegaScale Rotation- New Giant Kite Farm Turret Solution ...

    MegaScale AWE Experimentation


    Aug 17, 2011 – MegaScale Engineering is engineering on a grand scale. ... is naturallymegascale, in at least the tether dimension, on a kilometer scale.

  2. Third small prototype of megascale isotropic kite concept (JPEG ...


    The megascale concept of a pure soft-kite isotropic wing was shown to work at meter-scale, but due to the crudeness of the untailored triangular playsail, ...

  3. MegaScale Rotation- New Giant Kite Farm Turret Solution


    Mar 10, 2012 – MegaScale Rotation- New Giant Kite Farm Turret Solution. A highly desirable kite farm feature is to be able to rotate the whole farm as a single ...

    You visited this page on 9/15/12
  4. Megascale "Spin-Basket" Persistent Flight Method (Polygonal ...


    Apr 7, 2012 – Megascale "Spin-Basket" Persistent Flight Method (Polygonal Cableway Driven). A Spin-basket is a common sort of hemispherical ...

  5. Advanced Tarpaulin Kites (Megascale Rope-Loadpath Method)


    Feb 10, 2012 – The New KiteLab megascale tarp-kite method is to first create a large rope-loadpath structure in a desirable kite geometry (like KiteShip's OL), ...

  6. Mega-Scale Kite Aerogel (MSKA) Apps


    Nov 19, 2011 – Mega-Scale Kite Aerogel (MSKA) Apps. Dan'l's recent posts about aerogels and atmospheric electricity do indeed point toward interesting ...

  7. Mega-Scale Free-Space Polymer Engineering. Case Study: Super ...


    May 18, 2001 – This report describes the next conceptual frontier of AWE, the aggregating of capacity to mega-scale by rigging dense arrays. Rigging with lines ...

    You visited this page on 9/15/12.

    Keywords and phrases


    MA short for MAWE for Megascale AWE, megascale AWECS, RAD key for Japan: MA http://youtu.be/ChjHqraBj_M · AWE4468 ...

  9. Quasi-Planar Isotropism with Square TarpKites (Kixels)


    Feb 20, 2012 – It is proposed that megascale kite arrays need not rotate to accept wind... If such a megascale array is made up of a rope loadpath latticework ...

  1. "Trampoline" Rig AWECS


    A mega-scale horizontal membrane stretched like a trampoline between, say, three peaks or masts, will spontaneously resonate strongly in wind from any ..

  2. Top Megascaling Principles (especially "stake-out")


    May 8, 2011 – Smaller megascale kites can be rotated by "compass belay", but the largest sizes require a radial line stake-out pattern with phase tracking (Iso ..

  3. Low Flying-Angle Mitigation


    Sep 1, 2012 – A megascale tensile fabric of tiny whirligigs is even more radical. ========Bob adds on September 1, 2012: At a guess, the trend to giantism ..

  4. Double-Driving AWES Transmissions


    May 13, 2012 – It contains a classic differential gear, and equivalent devices could be quickly developed at even megascale from COTS gearsets. This method ...

  5. London Eye as Mega Bike Wheel Design


    May 4, 2012 – Yes, the London Eye is in fact a good mechanical model for amegascale AWES structure because it embodies the highly optimal structure of .

  6. Scaling Up by Aerodynamic Porosity


    To create megascale kite structure a fractal scale of porosity is proposed for what is dubbed a "metakite", a super kite made of a dense array of smaller kite ...

  7. Role of Static Nodes in a WingMill Harmonic Lattice


    Apr 22, 2012 – Wayne German's megascale "Vertical Blind" concept would in effect do short-cycle "buzzing" rather than making long majestic tacks across the ...

  8. Hi-Fi Biomimetic Kite Farm Model (Shark Gills)


    Feb 22, 2012 – What will a megascale kite or kite farm of the future look like? Many concepts call for a sprawling pattern of single line AWES, resembling thin ...

  9. Isotropic Kite in Persistent Flight


    Jan 17, 2012 – The significance of this proof is that future megascale arrays can accept wind from any quarter without having to spin, but merely tilt from ...

  1. Kite Hybrid Power Plant (Retrofit Notes)


    Apr 28, 2011 – Industrial megascale COTS components are available for most of the added hardware. Some situations are more ideal, others marginal.

  2. Multi-Link Tethers and Sleeved Multi-Lines


    Nov 21, 2011 – The possibilities are infinite, and extend into 3-D lattices for mega-scalelatticework. ======================== Sleeved Multi-Lines ...

  3. Tensile Whippletrees and Double-Driving Differentials (AWECS ...


    Nov 21, 2011 – We now find in the common differential gear found in vehicle axles a COTS mechanism to do this job at high duty from small to megascale.

  4. Kite Energy Community, Kite Energy Systems rapid development at ...


    DRAFT copy : Mega-Scale Free-Space Polymer Engineering, Case Study: Super-Density Kite-Energy Arrays. Welcome note =>HERE Today's Kite Energy ...

  5. Wind PG Members


    Sep 29, 2011 – Spanning ordinary turbulence with megascale crosslinked kite structure is very effective in ordinary conditions. Better imaging and prediction, ...

  6. Radial Kite Arches


    Jun 4, 2010 – Terms and aspects: Related links: AWES5943. Commentary is welcome: AWES5895 MegaScale Kite-Arch GeoEngineering Methods.

  7. Isotropic Kite Demo (Scale "Large-Array" Model)


    Mega-Scale Kite Aerogels will set many new records for engineered gels, including greatest variation in volume. 21Nov2011 DS; The biggest area unexplored ...

  8. Today's AWEIA featured member


    NOW featuring: DRAFT copy : Mega-Scale Free-Space Polymer Engineering, Case Study: Super-Density Kite-Energy Arrays; [ ] March 2011 Popular Mechanics ...

  9. Response to FAA request for comment contained in


    Feb 6, 2012 – [KLG tests all concepts comparatively at small scale, but is known for forward-looking Megascale AWES schemes. Broad exploration of ...

  10. Tethered Aviation ConOps (TACO) v0.8


    Dec 6, 2011 – [KLG tests all concepts comparatively at small scale, but is known for forward-looking Megascale AWES schemes. Broad exploration of ...

  1. [PDF] 

    Response to FAA request for comment contained in- "Notification for ...


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
    Megascale AWES schemes. Broad exploration of ...... Long tethers are megascale structure and caused power blackouts and stopped trains and steamships ...

  2. Timeline of AWECS


    The significance of this proof is that future megascale arrays can accept wind from any quarter without having to spin, but merely tilt from veering wind in real ...


Working yet:


Working yet:


Working yet:
       In the last five years we have made great conceptual progress toward true Megascale AWES based on fabric wing structure. This new work builds on the legacy of megascale soft kite pioneers like Domina Jalbert, Harry Osborne, Dave Culp, Peter Lynn Sr., Dave Gomberg, and many others. Many of these folks are still actively advancing the art.

No such experts nor their grand discoveries were allowed to influence Near Zero's "rigid wing favored" scaling conclusion. Megascale soft wing expertise was even summarily removed from the Expert Panel. Instead, your pessimistic opinion of fabric wing scaling was cited as if a definitive conclusion (despite 4-0 disagreement with your quoted comment during the panel discussion).

As WindLift publicly stated at AWEC2012, your team is not really a wing-expert circle (but your mechanical ground design is outstanding). KiteLab Group's R&D includes advanced rigid AWES wings flown comparatively, and in hybrids, with soft wings, across all existing scales. We are true AWES wing experts, with many important innovations developed and tested.

The following fabric-based Megascale AWES ideas have emerged that address every major concern about fabric wings such as you pose-

1) Either by scaling law or existence-proof, tensile airborne array structure is the most inherently scalable wing technology. It is the only way to do gigawatt-unit scaling. The largest wings ever made are cellular or modular soft kites (>1000 m2). KiteLab Austin's success with its 300 m2 rope-loadpath and tarp 1/40 scale demonstrator suggests cheap and practical AWE into the km scale, well within tensile mass scaling-law limits. On the other hand, rigid airborne structure barely scales to perhaps 100 m wingspan, and capital cost looks prohibitive. Hull loss risk will remain a deal killer for at least decade and likely far longer, based on overall aerospace "drone" reliability metrics. No existing AWES rigid-wing R&D team is likely able to drive this industry-wide curve down quickly.

2) By "staked out" (multi anchor) arched methods, megascale fabric kite stability is solved. The Earth itself between spread anchors is the ultimate rigid "control bar". Graduated porosity is just one of many other low-tech stability factors to engineer with. Runaway risk is also mitigated by multi-lines. New methods were developed to rotate arrays. Cascaded launch of large arrays from a single pilot unit has been shown effective. Single-line jumbo rigid-wing concepts dependent on complex avionics are much more operationally and stability-challenged.

3) Megascale actuation is best done by massive industrial ground winches, rather than expensive super-light aviation-grade actuators with far shorter lifecycles (<1000hr). Similar logic applies to keeping giant generators on the ground v flying small generators. Large soft arrays helping drive the largest legacy generator plants (coal, gas, and hydro) as "Kite Hybrids" is perhaps the most promising AWES biz model of all. Near Zero failed to understand how strategic such specific ideas may prove.

4) Simple geometric studies and many actual experiments show that dense arch arrays use land and airspace at up to 100 times greater intensity than single-line concepts with a comparable scope requirement. Effective geoengineering to mitigate adverse climate effects is also far more feasible by the ultimately more powerful dense-array fabric methods.

5) True crosswind AWE is just as good with soft or hard wings (by power to airborne-mass). Yes, a comparative soft wing is bigger by wing area and does not have so high a "TSR" for equivalent power, but is so-o-o much cheaper and more robust. It is well worth testing both approaches head-to-head in comparative trials (fly-offs) to help settle the issue.

6) Regulatory certification is based on specific factors such as flight mass/velocity categories, inspectability, and conspicuity. The FAA has further cited as key issues runaway crash concerns and airspace utilization efficiency. Megascale fabric and rope arch concepts seem advantaged in every such requirement.

These Megascale AWES research findings have plenty of supporting evidence. For example, KiteLab Ilwaco has tested fabric kites repeatedly in real icing conditions and found they reliably and continuously shed ice flakes due to constant flexing, before build up occurs. Other teams validate the same observations about fabric self-deicing. Lift is destroyed by ice far more readily with fine rigid-wings, requiring avoidance or expensive added deicing systems (like inflatable rubber boots or heaters).

To review your soft kite Cl return-phase issue:

1) Your logic is based on long-stroke reeling, an early AWES method widely considered obsolete in the Megascale-AWES study circle. Long-stroke issues range from poorest airspace usage to high tether wear. A short recovery phase at the top of a loop or figure-of-eight suffices (short-stroke method).

2) Soft kites offer the most variable-geometry of any wing type, and therefore the greatest possible control of Cl. Parafoil kites furl to as little as 1/100 of inflated projected frontal area. Single skin kites furl even more. These proven modes are available to long-stroke designers. The gedanken proof offered you involved a hybrid concept- of a rigid airframe stably ferrying a far more powerful packed soft kite back along a return-phase. Purpose-designed AWES along these lines are possible, following the common example of roller-furling in sailing.

3) All major stability concerns are resolved with multi-anchored cross-linked arrays. One can even imagine the best of all worlds, a megascale fabric-based vertical-lift arch hosting aloft large numbers of smaller rigid wings operating crosswind. Chaos of any part is cancelled by the bulk array, and the part recovers.

For lack of staff domain-expertise, Near Zero never understood the hybrid array concept space as a most strategic R&D option, and obviously failed to comprehend the key importance of so many other current ideas. They cherry-picked and cooked expert-provided data to fit a novice conception of AWES scaling possibilities. Only the full range of expert design choices allows the best R&D allocations.

Your concern that no soft wing AWES is in continuous reliable operation is even more true for rigid wings. A big reason is simply current experimental logistics. KiteLab Ilwaco has at least demonstrated continuous reliable self-operation of small AWES, including up to 40 self-relaunch cycles. No fabric element has ever worn out, given simple maintenance and quick repair, despite some kites flown relentlessly for five years. Only session constraints limited operation. Lets let third-party judged fly-offs determine if complex brittle rigid wings can really compete with their simple tough fabric counterparts.

Let me know if any point made here requires more substantiation. I tried to keep the explanations short, but there is so much more supporting evidence that could be offered.

Thanks again for elaborating your thoughts on AWES Megascaling theory,

daveS                          Thu Sep 27, 2012
"Super Carousel" AWES with high circumferential velocity issues resolved

Previous gigawatt-scale AWES Carousel concepts crowded kites around the
circumference of a giant turntable or circular track. Such affairs would
predictably turn very slowly, even at the periphery, with high potential for
fouled kites. The capital cost of so much mechanical mass was daunting.

An improvement proposed by KiteLab a few years ago was to reduce the original
huge carousel to a far smaller stronger version with a massive vertical
crankshaft receiving tug force from cableways radiating in all directions. Thus
pre-aggregated forces of surrounding kite-array farm cells could sum to
gigawatt-plus scale generation. The compact-carousel distributed-kite approach
also solved the kite crowding/fouling issue.

A bicycle wheel structural geometry was proposed for the compact carousel.
Crank-driven, it would travel at far faster speeds for optimal electrical
generation. A ring of TGV (electric bullet-train) "engines" of about 5MW rated
brake output was conceptually envisioned as the moving rim of the wheel. In
effect this is a giant single generator unit. The limit case then became the
large centrifugal forces in running a train in a tight circle at TGV speeds of
several hundred km per hour. Operational issues like "hot" generator repair and
maintenance were new design hurdles.

The solution is elegant and makes for a far more mature "Super Carousel"
concept- Merely keep the electrical train-ring stationary and let the rotating
carousel be the "moving train track" impinging on the "train wheels" set into
the surrounding stationary generator ring. The circumferentially stationed
generators become easy to access during operations, to bring online or remove.
The moving mass of the required carousel wheel is greatly reduced, easing design
and capital cost.

The flywheel effect of the still massive high-speed wheel would provide some
inertial stability, but flywheels as such are not really a competitive bulk grid
storage solution, and the kite cells can be closely managed to match demand. As
Feynman's father famously noted, an electric grid of generators is a virtual
flywheel. One can also drive carousels in motor-mode. Such AWES concepts can
scale well beyond all previous power plant technologies.

Dave S.        27 Sep 2012

megascale single-unit concepts

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