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Kite Energy Fundamentals and Applications

Table of Contents
Kite-Energy Glossary
aka: Airborne Wind Energy Textbook
... being built since January 7, 2009.
Anyone is invited to help build an effective kite energy glossary for all   Send to

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z                 Other glossaries of interest

  • babyAWEindustry    M2726
  • backcountry kiting
  • backing wind       Its opposite is veering wind.
  • backlash
  • Bainbridge
  • bait-ferry     Kite system that captures the kinetic energy of the wind to power the transport of fishing or other animal bait to a desired location.    See:      Also, in logging, kite systems carry logs to target locations.
  • balance 
    • balance in kites
    • balance line
    • balance mass

  • balanced kites      In AWECS, the having of more than one kite with an initial trunk tether while branched tether permit a variety of branching of working kite units stay in balance so that destructive interference does not occur during production of energy for useful works. The balance may be simplistic or very complex.  Scores of fighter kites have been balanced even though they have highly erratic motions.  The Roto-kite or Rotokite has soft balanced kites in rotational balance for yo-yo energy-production method.  Also, two kites balanced in timing for one going out while other depowered coming in are balanced smartly by controllers and kite-control units.  Rigid kiteplanes may be controlled for balanced rotation branched from a single tether with turbines on the kiteplanes.  A doctoral student is revisiting in 2010 the challenges of AWE balanced kites: Reinhart Paelinck       Peter R. Payne recited in his patent in Fig. 3 the means of keeping two kites in balance while being flygens and having their short tethers emanating from a single point on a main non-sweeping tether.    See also: dancing kites       The AWE Community is invited to advance the "dancing kite" file for all.   Click image for full instruction.
    See:  M2699 and its following posts.   See also: M2704 and its following posts.

    The use of the adjective of "balanced" has other uses in kiting.  Elementary symmetrical balancing of a kite's lifting body is one such use; upon balancing left and right weight and/or aerodynamic performance, one may say that one has a balanced kite (up to those parameters).
  • balancers        Various balancers are used in kite systems. 
  • balancing a kite        What are the ways to balance a kite system?
  • balancing an AWECS
  •   ballasted boom in TipB
  • ballasted lever
  • ballasted paravane     is like an air LTA kytoon         M434 
  • ballistic pendulum
  • ball bearing               wiki/Ball_bearing    Notice the difference: spherical rolling elements are used in "ball" bearings; other shapes of the rolling element, say cylindrical or conical shapes provide other realms of bearings. Roller bearings is the general term.  See also cylindrical roller bearing, ________
    • ball bearings play an increasing role in some AWES
    • ball-bearing tip       refers to an easily rotatable tip of a hang glider
  • ballonet         wiki    Yes, just one "o" in spelling.
  • balloon, balloons   [literature also has balloon  with one "l"] and kytoon, kytoons
  • balloon boy      |   1933  |   image  |
  • ballooning
  • Ballooning on Mars
  • ballute, ballutes
  • bamboo
  • banners
  • banner towing
  • bar, bars
    • cross bars
    • longitudinal bars
    • oblique bars
  • barge, barge holding sets of hydro turbines tugged by kites


  • Barrage balloon (kytoon type, kite balloon type).   These were bridled and were LTA kite balloons. Upon some wind, the kiting principle played to counter some of the blow-down.
    •  News in 1941
    • WWI : France, Germany, Italy, England
    • WWII :
    • balloonet type
    • dilatable type
    • The U.S. Army Barrage Balloon Program
      By James R. Shock
    • wiki/Barrage_balloon

  • In 2011:   BHL

    BarretinaHyperLite  neat steps, Pere!
    Single-skin-partial-second-surface canopy wing, an echo of Barish Sailwing P2S technology!
     ...destined for manned and unmanned explorations in kiting and free-flight!
    SSP2S PG: Single-Skin--Partial-2nd-Surface PG

    Barrentina HyperLite, Barrentina Hyper Lite    (BHL)

    In 2012:
    BatLite  1er vuelo de altura del BATLITE 1.8 de ADRENALINE PARAGLIDERS   BatLite 1.8 ( = Adrenaline Paragliders' version of the simple surface BarretinaHyperLite), flying high!    July 2012.

    BHL JAP building

    Published on Oct 30, 2012 by 

    "Making-of" Video, of BHL JAP Singleskin Prototype.Detailed information about this project on Laboratori D´envol.
    This video is not an instruction, it just shows some steps of a possible building process.
    Enjoy and feel free to leave a feedback.



  • beam construction
  • beam (mechanical structural element)
  • beam (stream of photos, rays, light beams, plasma beam, )
  • beam stiffening
  • beam theory  (dynamics and statics)
  • BEAN     In his discourse he brings in another major acronym:  BEAN :: Bearingless End-braked Autogyro Node.    Also another of his key acronyms is  STALK    STALKs      See: Free Rotor by Colin Jack.  An acronym in his patent.  Stack To Altitude LinKage        In his discourse he brings in another major acronym:  BEAN :: Bearingless End-braked Autogyro Node
  • bearings
    • thrust bearings   |  SampleTB1   |  Timken TBs  |
    • axial load
    • radial load
    • cylindrical roller bearings
    • magnetic repulsion bearings
    • repulsion magnetic bearings
    • self-aligning roller thrust bearing
    • thrust ball bearing
    • slewing bearing
    • bearing load scenarios:    |  Art1BL  | 
    • tapered roller bearings, taper roller bearing,    |  SampleTRB1 |  
    • (? helicopter transmissions)
    • fluid film thrust bearing
    • pseudo-levitation
    • Magnetic bearing device Kesatoshi Takeuchi  (application for patent)
      Drawing  Consider this for swivel on rotary arch kites and rotary arch ribbon kites.
    • axial magnetic bearing
    • active magnetic bearing systems
    • homopolar magnetic bearing
    • non-contact thrust bearing
    • Magnetic bearings, where the axial thrust is supported on a magnetic field. This is used where very high speeds or very low drag is needed, for example the Zippe-type centrifuge.
    • roller bearings
    • needle bearings
    • thrust bearings
    • self-aligning spherical thrust bearings

  • beat-ups
  • Beaufort Scale
  • Beaujean  
    Dr J. M. E. Beaujean, Joseph Marie Elise Beaujean; company: Bogey Venlo B.V. in Venlo, Netherlands.  Civil engineering.  AWES concept of 2012 announcement.   AWES6109 and following. Discuss there.  
    Same: Drs. J.M.E (Sjef) Beaujean, Sjef Beaujean     Contact.  Eurospiraal B.V.  For some mindset behind his move toward huge AWES, meditate over his spiral for transport of large prefabricated pipes and complex cables, etc.  Floating Spiral Method.
Editorial: Consider a complex spiraled hull holding water turbines; tug it out to sea and fly traction kites to pull the full device broadside while making electricity and manufacturing chemicals including hydrogen. Products could be stored in another spiraled complex and towed to ports for release of the products.

  • behavior switching agents
  • belay, belaying, belayer        wiki/Belaying
  • Bell, Alexander Graham
  • belly-band     or bridle line of a kite
  • bending
    • bending stiffness
  • Benhaiem, Pierre. 
  • Bensen,    Igor Bensen   (typo is the o use: Benson).   
    • kite gliders, gyro gliders, giro gliders, giro kites, gyroplane, gyro copter, auto giro, auto gyro, autogiro, autogyro, giro copter, etc.   He used the control method that was evident in at least 1908 in Breslau with pilot hung from wing behind A-frame, the control method used by Spratt, ski kites, and hang gliders. The Breslau use was cable-stayed triangle with pilot hung from behind the A-frame. Bensen used several morphs of the control method, one of which was ornamentally directly a triangle control frame with pilot hung behind the frame.   Mechanix Illustrated, August 1954, see issue.
    • V
    • V
    • V
    • V
  • belly band     (part of a kite's bridle) 
  • Benjamin Robins
  • BES      or   EBS      Consider if BES was intended:  Bose-Einstein Statistics (BES)
  • best kite for power generation is a myth, as niche purpose will have its own strong contenders
  • best practice AWE
  • Berck-sur-Mer     | wiki ||
  • Bethell, Ray.       Amazing KITE Flying!    Ray Bethell 
  •  Betz, A., "Das Maximum der theoretisch mo'glichen Ausnutzung des Windes durch Windmotoren," Zeitschrift fur das gesamte Turbinenwesen, Heft 26, Sept. 26, 1920.
    • Converting wind's kinetic energy to another form of energy slows the wind.
    • Betz limit, Betz law, Betz' limit, Betz' law      wiki   "Three independent discoveries of the turbine efficiency limit: The British scientist Lanchester derived the same maximum already in 1915. The leader of the Russian aerodynamic school, Zhukowsky, also published the same result for an ideal wind turbine in 1920, the same year as Betz did.[2] It is thus an example of Stigler's Law."
      • "The most interesting finding of our analysis is that the maximum efficiency of the plane propeller is about 30 percent for free fluids. This is in a sharp contrast to the 60 percent given by the Betz limit, commonly used now for decades. It is shown that the Betz overestimate results from neglecting the curvature of the fluid streams. We also show that the three-dimensional helical turbine is more efficient than the two-dimensional propeller, at least in water applications. Moreover, well-documented tests have shown that the helical turbine has an efficiency of 35 percent, making it preferable for use in free water currents." Gorban, Gorlov, Silantyev
    • Betz' Limit   
    • Lanchester-Zhukowsky-Betz limit
    • Betz' Law
    • A proof:
    • Wind-Energie in 1926.
    • Albert Betz
    • For a given fluid energy-harvesting system there is an upper bound to the percentage of the fluid's energy that may be harvested.
    • v
    • v
  • Bft                       Beaufort Wind Scale      Developed in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort of England.  wiki/Beaufort_scale
  • BHL   See Barrentina HyperLite    kite and gliding kite (paraglider)
  • BHWE Bundesverband Höhenwindenergie e.V. i.G.

    BHWE Bundesverband Windenergy   ; 2013. 

    • BHWE Bundesverband Höhenwindenergie e.V. i.G.
    • Guido Luetsch, president, German Airborne Wind Energy Association.
    • Founded: _2013 on date: ??_________
    • e.V. stands for eingetragener Verein = registered association      Note.
    • BHWE Bundesverband Höhenwindenergie e.V. i.G.

      (German Airborne Wind Energy Association)

    • News release of Feb. 18, 2013 about Sept. 9 and 10 and 11 of 2013:  AirborneWindEnergy/message/8595

    • First president: Guido Lütsch

    • First association members? __________________


  • bicycle parts       List  
  • bidirectional
  • bigAWE
  • big ears        (paragliding term)
  • Big Wind          similar to Big Oil or Big Coal.    Big Wind is the playground for AWECS. Indeed, some are aiming some AWECS for mining the energy in hurricanes.
  • bike ratchet hub
  • Bill Ola Rasmussen
  • billow shift  
  • biolocomotion  [See also propulsion kinematics, metachronal rhythm, ]
  • biologically inspired control        Al Furey   
  • biplane
  • bird        Fond name for an aerodynamic object.  E.g., each version of the grounded and airborne SpiralAirfoil Airborne  is referred to as a "bird."
  • bird kills
  • BISMAC    bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite
  • bistable
  • biz bluff
  • biz stealth
  • bladder

  • blade parafoil
  • blade, blades     Rotor blades. Turbine blades.   Whisper H-40 blades.         rotor
    • tip of a not-there blade        Rod Read: AWES6290   
    • Number of blades in HAWT, AWE or tower-held?  Theory? Correlations with end use? Reynolds number, cut-in, hysteresis, form-factors, materials, handling, scaling, speed-limiting, cultural-preferences, budget, purpose, life of project, initial costs,
    • blade-tip AWES paradigm has severe challenges  AirborneWindEnergy/message/8283
    • blade technology           How to make blades for HAWT?
    • blade-throw distances        Upon failure of a wind-energy turbine of any sort, what is the amount of space and distance required for setback from vital settings in order to address parts where they should not be?  For AWES, the range for wing and tether fall is to be considered.
    • v
  • Bladud.  King Bladud.
  • BLC     boundary-layer control
  • blended wing
  • blimp                             Blimp basics.
    • blimps
    • blimp turbine    See also: kytoon turbine, Magnus-effect kytoon turbine, Magenn blimp turbine
    • blimpy
  • B lines     video1
  • blipmap, blipmaps       | start article  |      |      |      |
  • BLM   brushless motor
  • block and tackle      wiki      Supply1   Supply2  
  • blocks
  • BloomBox          Bloom Energy Server. Bloom Energy Fuel Cell.    Note: Fuel is an input.  A type of fuel-cell.  Company: Bloom Energy.
  • blowcarting
  • blown wings      
  • blowout
  • blow-over         wind on balloon or kytoon that blows the balloon or kytoon far downwind to an undesirable altitude
  • BM   Burning Man      wiki      Home


  • Borsheim       M231          John Borsheim, president of American Test Engineering Corporation (ATEC) of Austin, Texas.
  • boundary layer
  • boundary-layer constrained devices

Earth or a planet's atmosphere boundary zone

  • boundary layer control    BLC    Perhaps better: boundary zone control.
    •   Many contrivances have been explored to affect the boundary layer flow on wing; some of these methods may play in control of AWECS lifting bodies for control, lift, asymmetrical flight, adjustments for balance, increasing energy production, ...
  • boundary layer control system (BLCS)
  • Boundary zone.    Boundary-zone thickening by objects  roughen the surface of the earth. Objects that project upwards deflect the wind  and thicken the boundary zone as the object blunt the wind and damp some of the wind's kinetic energy.  AWECS are more of that projecting of roughness.

  • Bouquets of kites
  • bow line
  • bowline (knot)      wiki
  • bowtie           |   kite system might be forced into a bowtie configuration as a result of turbulence, some failure, control,        Generally a bowtie would be an unwanted event. However, leave open the possibility of deliberately setting a system into bowtie for some reason.    Notes are welcome.  
  • bracing line         Lyle and Richard team on Rotary Kite in 1976
  • brake
  • brake lines
  • branch
  • branching
    • term for high jumping (jump up to a branch, jump over a branch) ... primitive flying
    • term for structure of kite tree pattern where lines  branch out to wing elements; this may be repeated for several levels of branching. At a junction may be a split to two, three or more further branches.
    • term use for the cascade of bridle or tether lines to a wing in a kite system, as in gliding kite paraglider.    There may be one level, two levels, three levels, or more levels. Branching permits the use of smaller diameter lines while a bridling of a wing is effected; the wing may be just canopy or airframed wing.   Example.
  • break
  • breakaway, runaway, flyaway   
    • breakaway AWES        AWES7239
    • breakaway kite, breakaway kites
    • breakaway kite system
    • mitigations for breakaway kite systems
      • killability
      • Multi-lines to multi-anchors   AWES4461   
      • wing morphing for spoiling or gliding
      • wing destruction
      • cutting tether for tether drop
        • cutting tether near wing; drogue tether falls
      • v
  • breakdown
  • breakdown cost
  • Brearey kites and gliders [Sometimes misspelled to Breary, absenting the second e ]]  Fred Brearey, F. W. Brearey
  • Breeches buoy
  • breeze
  • breeze generator 
  • Breukels, Jeroen
  • bridge rectifier     Art1    Vid2 
  • bridle 
  • bridle lock           Phrased used in patent: US3918663
  • bridle matters
    • correctness
    • balance
    • control
    • line pattern
    • cascade
    • branching
    • v
  • bridling
  • bringing down giant kites
  • Briza Technologies        Hovering Wind Turbine Technology.   Hillsborough, New Jersey.        HWTs "It is also particularly attractive applying  HWT offshore in deep-water sites for the production of hydrogen fuel," said Briza. "Multiple large arrays of HWT can be affordably anchored to the ocean floor to generate multi-megawatts, and hydrogen can be locally produced and collected in a platform through a network of underwater pipes." Jan. 2005.  Ref1     [ED: It seems as though their former website is inactive. The holdings seem to have been purchased by another company.  News is invited.]
  • broad gauge      (rail)    Rails are proposed in various AWECS.     wiki 
  • bowsprit        
  • Bruce foil
  • Brush, Charles F.      Windmill generating electricity 1887-88   RefGen1
  • Brushless DC electric motor
  • Bryan Roberts
  • Bubble Wrap (tm)   wiki
    • Use in wings and AWES structures?   AWES6591
    • v
    • v
    • v
    • v
  • buckling,       unbuckling,
  • buckling load                        mitigation of buckling 
  • Budapest kite, Buda kite, Buda Jewish kite  ----    was fact in 1904.
  • buddy system in kiting, in hang gliding, in AWES operations
  • buffet
  • buggy, sail
  • Buggy Town
  • Bukur, Thomas J.       Rotary Flyer   patent 
  • bulk electricity
  • bullet sled      Ed Grauel Bullet Sled        Ref1 
  • bullroarer (sometimes found "bull roarer"  Some vibrate without rotating continuously about its long axis, but some do rotate continuously about its long axis to be itself then a rotating flip wing ... a foundation for flip-wing rotor kites, rotor kite rotating ribbon arch kites.   Some are tethered on cords. Some are not tethered on cords.
    • bullroarer effect
    • For the continuously rotating flip-wing sort of bullroarer we have two aerodynamic effects: 1. Basic Bernoulli airfoil lifting that dominantly forms flipping moment, and 2. the involved circulating air forms an air cylinder where on such air form is a secondary effect of Magnus effect.    ~JpF
    • Some videos of the tethered bullroarer
    • Swivels or not on a tethered bullroarer?
    • v
  • bull wheel, bullwheel                  wiki      
  • Bungee Cord, the quarterly newsletter/magazine of the Vintage Sailplane Association in the USA    BUNGEE CORD - Voice of the Vintage Sailplane Association.
  • bungee cord     wiki/Bungee_cord    (Sometimes: bungie cord or bungy cord)   shock cord, (Occy strap / Octopus strap in Australian common usage)      Energy may be stored in the bungee cord; release of that energy uncontrolled may cause injury or death.  Uses are many.    Glider launch (unmanned or manned). 
  • buoyant lifting body
  • buoy generator
  • Burning Man    (BM)     wiki
  • burst strength
  • buzz
  • buzzing
  • BVI-Necker      British Virgin Islands-Necker Island       AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/messages/12131   Richard Branson's private island
  • BWB     Blended Wing Body  
  • BWE    Bioinspired Wind Energy
  • BWEA, British Wind Energy Association
  • BZ      Belousov-Zhabotinsky       BZ CA    three-dimensional Belousov-Zhabotinsky-scroll cellular automata (3D BZ CAs for short)    BZ-CA,  BZ CA,
  • BZ reaction      wiki       [[ Could this be an analogical model useful in understanding or visualizing vast dense latticework AWECS?  ]]

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