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Kite-Energy Glossary
... being built since January 7, 2009.
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z             Other glossaries of interest

  • vacuum
  • vacuum balloon
  • Vacutanium          Article1
  • validation       See also certification, testing,
    • validators
    • third-party validators    See also certification agents.
    • rigorous validation protocol                     [ Brunel University for AWES, project leadership.]      [NASA interested.]     [Fraunhofer interested.]   
      2014 evolution toward independent rigorous validation of comparative AWES in preamble to industry down selecting ...

  • valley-held kite
  • valve
    • relief valve, pressure-limiting relief valve
    • passive pressure-boosting (pumping) valve
    • normal valve
    • dump valve
    • screw valve
    • bladder-valve options          One-way valve.
    • bleeder valve
  • valved foil kite
  • Valvular sail
  • vane, vanes     Main folder
  • van Gries       A. van Gries, inventor. Patent GB489139, filed in 1937 . Discuss:
  • vaporware        wiki  
  • variable                       |   Variables  | Parameters  |  Parameters of interest to investors  |
  • variable area wind turbine  VAWT    Terminology notice:  "VAWT" in non-AWE has stood for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. In Isentropic studies prior to 2004 in an AWE exploration, the "VAWT" was used in documents for "Variable Area Wind Turbine."
  • variable drogue
  • variable geometry
  • variable kite,        morphable kite, shape shifting, morphKite, kite morphing, kiteMorph,  variability strategies, automatic adjustments, passive variability, active variability, variDrogue, drag profile, variable lift, variable drag, variable shape,    M449 
  • variable parachute
  • variable porosity, variable porosity material
  • variable shape wing
  • variable span wing
  • Variable Traction Kite System
    A longstanding design exists for a variable parachute whose apex is pulled in & out to furl or power it. Simply hang such a chute under a pilot-lifter as line laundry & viola, its an effective variable traction kite system for reel-gen based AWE. No need for a novel superkite.
  • variability of wind   (also respect intermittency of wing)
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  • variDrogue   M319        M321
  • variDrogue driven counterweighted boom
  • variloop        See: string variloop
  • vast dense cross-linked array kite farms
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    • v
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  • VB-KES       Venetian-blind kite energy system.  
  • virtual variable span wing
  • VAWT   vertical axis wind turbine  Caution: More accurate is that the axis of rotation is traverse to the wind direction or "crosswind axis" as opposed to windwise axis for HAWT.   A VAWT axis orientation might be zenithal, but it could also be oblique or even horizontal, but in each case staying traverse to the wind direction, i.e., generally perpendicular or normal to the wind direction.

    D-VAWT     Darrieus VAWT

    S-VAWT      Savonius VAWT


    We do know two cool new things about VAWTs ("crosswind axis", as we often set them horiz in AWECSs. HAWTs could then more precisely be called "windwise axis")-

    1) Opposed pairs in dense arrays do compete with conventional HAWTs on a land-footprint-to-power basis. (Dabiri, CalTech)

    2) Horiz Crosswind Axis Turbines looping backwards generate useful self-lift and some DS (dynamic soaring) boost. Stay tuned for a reassessment of Roy Mueller's SkyBow crosswind ribbon-rotor AWE concept, its not a Magnus scam, and it may transfer torque ~somewhat effectively.      DS; Nov. 2011

    VAWT   variable area wind turbine  
    Terminology notice:  "VAWT" in non-AWE has stood for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. In Isentropic studies prior to 2004 in an AWE exploration, the "VAWT" was used in documents for "Variable Area Wind Turbine."

    AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF A VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE by Travis Justin Carrigan, December 2010, masters thesis. "By fixing the tip speed
    ratio and solidity of the wind turbine, there exists an airfoil cross-section for which
    the torque can be maximized, requiring the development of an iterative design system."


  • Vector Kite   (Not a kite, but a non-kite non-moored non-tethered powered aircraft using ultralight constructions of the sort often used in kite (mooring, tether, lifting body) technology. AWE technologists are looking at the vectoring mechanism for possible control on AWECS. Also, flygen AWECS may take a look at Vector Kite for initiating tethered flight under power and then double using the motor for lofted generating of electricity. And more.    The vector propulsion unit is integrated with ultralight wings and radio controlled by a pilot on the ground.
  • Vectran
  • Harm van Veen.   The Tao of Kiteflying: The Dynamics of Tethered Flight. 
    Ref1      Biography      RefGroup  
  • Veljko Milković    Video   
    Related: "2 stage oscillator with twin rotor generator" video.
  • ventilation
  • venturi           natural venturi, artificial venturi, venturi effect,
  • veer
    • veering
    • veered-out section of a tether
    • veering wind         A change in the direction of the wind, in a clockwise direction.   Its opposite is "backing wind"
    • Use veering kites as branches to kite complexes
    • arch-spread tensed limit line
  • Venetian Blinds Kite-Energy System   by Wayne German.   Vertically set wing elements.  Full disclosure has not been made yet. Wayne German very briefly made a sketch at HAWP Conference 2009 and briefly said a few words about the matter.  Wayne's NDA damps discussion somewhat.  "I keep the trump to retain a deciding stake in how things transpire."    M3102    Venetian blinds come in horizontal variety and vertical variety.  See also Vertical Blind Technology.

    [misspelling: venitian blinds)]
  • Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
  • Vertical Blind Technology        M3105    "I keep the trump to retain a deciding stake in how things transpire."  ~~Wayne German

  • Vertical cross-winding
    • Classic kiting has practiced driving kites into vertical paths and figures in contrast with such as horizontal-lie figure eights. A focus on such has been studied for various AWECS efficiencies by KiteLab, Ilwaco.     megascalefreespaceDRAFT     When the mass of the wing set is low, then the cost to drive the mass vertically is more than balanced in costs by the savings of airspace and projected land area.
    • Vertical is an overlooked "crosswind" geometry for a tethered-foil to follow, as a vertical zip-line, pulley loop, or elastic-return line. Far more wings can operate in the same airspace, by plunging up & down as pumping-trains, than common back-&-forth figure-of-eight AWE schemes allow. A light enough wing easily climbs a vertical line faster than the wind. The plunge back down is a high-speed dive, but under captive control, especially with elastic-return. Vertical self-oscillation, triggered by line-bow phase, is an elegant passive steady-state wing tacking mechanism.   ~ Dave Santos     May 18, 2011         
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  • Vertical Flight
    • Onboard powered
    • Onboard human powered vertical flight
      • Rotary-wing
      • Flapper
        • Large flappers
        • Tiny flappers
    • Vertical flight by use of kite systems
    • R-C uninhabited powered vertical flight

  • vertical stabilizer  (often integrating with a rudder and rudder's trim tab).
    See its perpendicular cousin:  horizontal stabilizer  in Stabilizer (aircraft)
  • vertical wind farm 
  • vertical wind fence            Protecting London
  • vertical wind shear              See also its cousin: horizontal wind shear
  • Vertigo, Inc.
  • Very Large Free Flying Sails (VLFFS) by company KiteShip
  • Vestas Wind Systems
  • VestasAWECS   The set of tethered aviation involvements by the company Vestas is captured by by the title VestasAWECS.  Here.
  • VFR    visual flight rules                              Contrast: IFR instrument flight rules
  • viability limits
  • vibrational electric generator
  • vibrating cables
  • vibrating reed
  • vibrating wires
  • vibration
  • vibration electric generator
  • Vibration energy harvester (VEH)
  • vibration-based power generator
  • vibration powered generator
  • video
    • AWES videos       MainCollection    
    • AWES videography, tips, articles, uses, inspection uses, insurance purposes, education, training,
  • videogrammetry
  • viewscape        AWECS will be seen some. How much? If AWECS are high enough, then the view is little changed. Will the tether be seen?
  • vindicator
  • vintage kite
  • violations
  • virtual AWES
  • virtual kiting
  • virtual kite
  • virtual simulation
  • viscosity     wiki 
  • visibility
    • The large (71 meter) TCOM aerostats all flew in restricted airspace
      zones and did not have any markers or lights on the 10,000 foot
      The smaller (31 meter) aerostats were sometimes ship based and they
      put strobes on the 3,000 foot tether at night and orange flags during
      the day, manually clipping them on during launch and removing them on
      The ship-based systems were operated by the Coast Guard so they had
      definite ideas about lights and hazards to navigation.
       ~ Andrew in Ann Arbor        Discuss:   airbornewindenerg10545

  • Visible-tether kites  (VTK)  KT9

  • visual
    • visual-impact
    • visual-impact assessment (VIA)
    • shadow flicker of towered rotors and oscillating wings
    • view interruption
    • See also noise-impact assessment


  • volume
    • wiki/Volume
    • unit volume
    • Practical volume of space used by a conventional towered wind turbine?
    • Practical volume of space used by a kite system's flight operation (or AWES farm)
      "cylinder of a kite-cell airspace" has a volume (distinguish such from volume of air passing in a stream tube that impacts wings or blades).  Note that land is very rarely valued with circular areas, but rather sectioned with rectangular or trapezoidal areas; so the costing of some AWES land areas will be by figuring with actual land parcels; differently, airspace may respect circular cylinders in the sky for air traffic reasons.
      • assuming wind is constant in one direction only?
      • assuming wind varies to all directions of the compass from anchors?
      • Note that volume of space used is different from the area on the ground or on sea surface.  Notice that any particular kite system may be limited to a certain vertical altitude maximum use, whereas for some other kite system a different altitude limit may be permitted and used. Area on ground for use does not automatically determine the final volume of use; one needs to know the vertical operational positions.
      • Volume might be looked upon as a commodity, especially when competing users may value the volume involved. Aircraft users, agriculturalists, neighbors for visibility purposes, those who value local airflow quality, and animals may care how much valuable airspace is being used by a working wind power operation.
      • Compare two distinct AWES relative to the operational space (volume) that each uses; one AWES will generate more power per unit volume of operational space than the other AWES.  Notice that operational volume of a complete AWES is not identical to the volume of air passing through a particular wing-operation space or rotating blade disk area. The global volume of a complete AWES plant is distinct from the volume of air involved more directly over the impacted wings or blades of the AWES.
    • Volume of a packing.  Say a product is packed for shipping; that packing occupies a certain amount of 3D space or volume.  Notice that a packed AWES during storage or shipping to a working site will take up a certain volume that would be needed to be respected by the transportation method. One could play with a specific ratio for an AWES: (packed volume/power generated in a year) or other similar ratios.   Instead of pack volume, one might explore the ratio of power generated by a system in a year divided by its mass. Or using cost of materials per year divided by power generated per year by the system. Etc. Many ratios may be explored to compare AWES.
    • Volume of water displaced by a ship's hull
    • Measuring units used in expressing volume vary. There are some standard volumetric units used in specific practical industries, science disciplines, engineering sectors, and wind power matters. The cubic meter or its derivatives is a popular choice of unit for volume.  One cubic meter of space may have any shape, but one may visualize 1 m3 by that space approximately inside a box measuring 1 m at the edges of such cubic box. 
    • Volume formula have been derived for some common shapes.
    • Irregular shaped objects or sectors of space may have their volume's calculated by various means.
    • Material objects take up space and thus use volume.
    • Gas laws respect volume of a gas     wiki/Gas_laws
    • The amount of mass of generally open atmospheric air in 1 m3 (of space, of volume; we say just 1 m3 when it is understood that volume is intended) varies upon the pressure and temperature of that parcel of air.  Moving mass of air or water impacting wings will do so at certain velocities and angles; reaction to such impacts may drive rotation or translation of the wing or both; the wind's energy is thus changed to mechanical energy which may then be converted to other forms of energy, say electricity.
    • Volume involved in "power-density" conversation: How much power is in the wind within a specific parcel of airspace, which airspace has a projected ground area? The power of the wind in a volume parcel is a power/volume ratio called power density; this is distinct from "surface power density" that respects the area of a turbine's disk (notice that such does not deal with the power within a volume of airspace during a wind where multiple turbines might play within the volume).
      Be careful not to conflate Power-Density with StreamTube-Efficiency. They are not the same, and this thread is only about a power-density fallacy as such.

      Even if we define unit-volume as the entire cylinder of kite-cell airspace, power-density of that volume is still the same value for all AWES.

      StreamTube-Efficiency, on the other hand, varies greatly depending on the AWES concept chosen.
          ~DaveS     31Jan2014      Discuss.
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