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Kite-Energy Glossary
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z             Other glossaries of interest


·         P2SPG   partial double-skinned paraglider (P2SPG).     Also: PDS or PDSPG  or P2SHG.    When the wing's airfoil is formed by a second lower skin that does not go full chord, then the scene is one of "partial" second skin.   The Barish Sailwing actually had a P2S which tech is found in later builds by a number of kite-system experimentalists.   The XXLite is one of latest explorations using P2S technology.

·         PAC  passive attitude control

·         Pacific Power Sails     
See: R&D record posted Aug. 7, 2011.

·         pack

·         packing up

·         PAIR      Patent Application Information Retrieval (PAIR)

·         Palestine, Texas ...the city.      balloon test facility.   The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF), located in Palestine, Texas.   Mission   Near municipal airport; not suitable for extended tethered AWE.       Look into Esrange Space Center in Sweden, located about 45 km from Kiruna, Sweden on the arctic circle.

·         Palestine, the country or territory ... what is happening for the AWE Era in this territory?

·         PampaCat Parawing       

o    PampaCat ensayos de vuelo cautivo   (video)

o    Project report and development

o    PampaCat Parawing   (video)

·         PAN (polyacrylonitrile)      wiki  

·         panemone   or panemoon   ??[ ]

o  Early history of wind power.



o    Apparent spelling variety?

·         pancake motor    See our "motors"

·         Pansh kite  [misspelling: Pansch]

·         Text not available       "membrane wingmills always self-start by instability, unlike many panel wingmills"  Dave Santos

·         para anchoring

o    water    with parachutes, paravanes, drogues

o    soil

o    air              FFAWE

·         paras         paragliders         The similar short for hang gliders:  hangs  All paras are gliding kite systems. All paragliders are in a proper subset of hang gliders. Paras hang payload (pilot as payload also) by tethers only without sold coupling to the system's airframe.

·         P area       Prohibited area

·         parabola

·         ParaFinder and ParaLander

·         parakarting      is sometimes the term of kite buggying or kitebuggying, especially when the kite is of the parafoil type of traction kite.  GeneralLink. Parakarting is an AWECS  where traction is the dominant interest. Usually parakarting implies having the mooring be a moving wheeled land cart.

·         parachutal

·         parachutal phase

·         parachutals

·         parachutal stall, parachutal stalls,

·         parachute    (a type of kite system that emphasizes the utility of drag)

o    It is nearly impossible to have an ever-L/D=0 in real materials; but when the intent is to have L/D=0 for a parachute, then such has no positive kiting effect and thus cannot be a gliding parachute; hence these are non-gliding parachutes.  Look otherwise for parachutes that have L/D>0 with intent to have some gliding ability; such parachutes are gliding kites, but when the intent is more drag intended, then such are still parachutes (low-grade gliding devices).

o    Parachutes  index     

o    rectangular parachutes or gliders; these often are evolutes of the Jalbert parafoil, but not necessarily so.

o    square parachutes

o    conical parachutes

o    circular parachutes

o    round parachutes

o    paraglider parachutes (still a gliding kite system)

o    See Dan Poynter's Parachute Manual 

o    Leonardo da Vinci   drawing of a square-based pyramidal parachute that may have had an apex control line for, pehaps, some control or pre-shaping (speculative).

o    drogues

o    emergency parachutes

o    personnel parachutes

o    framed parachutes

o    hang gliders are sometimes considered as parachutes

o    parachute patents

o    smart parachutes    ParaFinder and ParaLander        Joint Precision Airdrop System (JPADS)

o    PAS  Precision Airdrop System

o    PIA    Parachute Industry Association

·         parachute aerodynamics

·         parachute-based AWECS, parachute-based generator, parachute-based pump, parachute-based oscillator

·         parachute release system  [See 3-ring release system; see other release systems ]

·         parachute rigger

·         parachute rigging      "Rigging then, in reference to parachutes, came to mean: the final adjustment and alignment of the various component sections to provide the proper aerodynamic reaction. "    
44 MB file: Parachute Riggers Handbook

·         parade kite

o    parade kite flying      Fly kites in a parade. Fly kites around a parage.

o    parading kites        Be in a parade with a display of kites flying or not.   Parade floats that feature kites or kiting.

o    parade of kites.       One type: scores of people marching while holding their kites or even flying their kites.

o    Sky filled with kites ...

o    kites for KAP work over parades


o    PK1

o    paraded kites

o    kiting parade

o    parade-promotion kites

o    Dragon Kite Parade

o    Giant Kite Parade

o    Parade of Kites


o    "Kite Parade: Kite parades are simple, colorful, and fun. The best part is that everyone participates and no one looses.


·         parafoil

o    Jalbert parafoil (mechanical evolute of Rogallo Wing where Jalbert added novelty of stark multiple cells well shaped to form ram-air high performance airfoil shapes). Jalbert did not reference Rogallo's limp wing that had understood ram-air airbeaming in Rogallo's patent; Jalbert's novelty was evident.

o    Domina C. Jalbert parafoil

o    Standing Parafoil Rig

o    wiki

o    A parafoil may be used as a wing in a free-flight kiting system (hang glider of canopy parafoil type, paraglider)

o    A parafoil may be used as a wing in a kite system

o    Images General link

o    parafoil bridling schemes

o    parafoil sports

·         paraglider   is a gliding kite system and
is an object of three essential parts:
1. resistive set, 2. tether set, 3. wing set.   Paragliders are members of a proper subset of hang gliders. Paragliders are members of a proper subset of kites. Paragliders are members of a proper subset of gliders. Paragliders have paravane analogues for water operation with the system gliding in water.

In brevity, writers and talkers focus on the wing as "paraglider" without pausing to rehearse that their focus is on the wing part of the paraglider.   Sellers of sport "wings" often sell "paragliders" without really selling the complete paraglider, as what they are selling is just the wing part and tether-set part, leaving the buyer of the wing to provide the the third part: the mass that will make the object complete as a gliding system. Some sellers one day may sell the wing separate from the tether set while leaving the user to provide separately the tether set to fit purpose.

Without the resistive set there is not a paraglider. Without the tether set coupling the resistive set and the wing, there is no paraglider. A wing alone is not a paraglider (except via the abbreviation language).
   A paraglider may use very many kinds of wings from solid to fully limp wings, depending on design and purpose. Paragliders may free glide in water or in atmospheres or a combination of fluids at once.  Sport paragliding is one corner of the broad extensive paragliding activity. Toy paraglider unmanned and huge scientific industrial working paragliders span the field.  
Note: Many hang gliders are paragliders, but not all (when a hang glider wing has no tether to its payload/pilot, then such hang glider is not a paraglider type; but the very popular sport hang glider that uses one (or several) main tethers to the pilot resistive set is a paraglider, like the Falcon 3 hang glider is a paraglider).  All sport paragliders of the Jalbert parafoil, Rogallo wing, Para-Command, and Barish Sailwing evolutes are in a proper subset of the superset hang gliders. Some hang gliders are not kite systems, but all paragliders are kite systems. An example of a hang glider that is not a paraglider is the Otto Lilienthal hang gliders where the pilot hangs directly from the wing without a tether set.

In the sport of paragliding, the pilot becomes part of the resistive set or anchor; he or she first ground kites, then walk kites or sometimes run kites, and then kite glides; in glide the paraglider is a gliding kite system The rich history of kites provide a garden for designers; they may take any kite system and explore just how well the system does when the anchor is let to fall freely through the air.

''Paraglider is a gliding kite having its wing, kite lines, and moving resistive masses.'' 
Olympian high jumper Joe Faust, founder of World ParaGliding Association.     

Ladder paraglider is a gliding ladder kite     CoopIP/LadderKite.html           

o    [[[  There is a firm source of some sectors of contemporary confusion. The superset is hang gliders; all paragliders form a proper subset within the superset of hang gliders. So, it is improper just to set a "comparison" as no amount of fudging will make a paraglider be not a hang glider; paragliders are string-only-to-payload gliding wings which wings may be limp or with very much stiffening even with sticks and rigid wings; the system glides through an atmosphere. One cannot make a paraglider stop being a hang glider; but there are some hang gliders that are not paragliders. Without carefully sorting this matter, there will ever be confusion. Woglom in 1800s book brought in strongly "para-" in "parakites". Let the anchor move, which is mechanically done even on the ground, but move in free-falling brings on a the gliding form of parakites to be called paragliders; NASA picked up on such terms and did leadership that stuck in patent systems to this day; the paraglider may have metal booms, stiffened inflated booms, battens, even rigid-plate wings; but the string support of payload---that anchors during the glide is part of the sorting key in this matter. The recent faction of sport users do have paragliders, but that faction errs by thinking that they have the only paragliders that exist; no, paragliders have existed and still exist outside of their faction. In the hang glider world (holds paragliders as a proper subset) there are hang gliders that are not paragliders, e.g. the hang gliders where no tether line is used during the gliding, that is, the pilot enters the rigid airframe after taking off. Differently the hang gliders that have a main set of tethers to hold the suspended pilot during glide are the type of hang glider that is a paraglider; hang gliding holds non-paragliders and paragliders; all paragliders are hang gliders; these things apply whether the suspended payload is a living human or a dead rock. The FAI is a private org that handles a faction of activity; its definitions supply its factions and interests, but such does not rule the aviation and engineering culture or the mechanical facts about aircraft function; their definitions and classes are for their private noteworthy use; one can note "FAI defines ___" but that does not force matters on all the other users of devices. So, e.g., there are three sorts of Rogallo Wing hang gliders: 1. rigid wing with pilot during glide playing himself into the airframe,2. airframed paraglider where the pilot as payload is suspended by a kiteline set while grabing the airframe to control it; 3. a limp-canopy paraglider (perhaps with stiffening all the to very airframed or even fully rigid--but where the payload or pilot is suspended without being able to grab the canopy above in a rigid coupling. So, the article on paragliding will ever have a challenge until it sorts out the mechanical basis of its subject. [[User:Joefaust|Joefaust]] ([[User talk:Joefaust|talk]]) 09:05, 2 October 2011 (UTC)]]]

o    First uses of the term applied to a wide-spectrum of gliders including those with structural beams. Such remains the case today, but not in all user factions. One user faction: the sport of "paragliding" hardly respects airframed paragliders while that sport's literature holds a paraglider as a string-controlled limp canopy kite system.  

o    Realie-Racie fugitive two-kite ballasted aeroplane of 1895 footnoted in Woglom's book Parakites, page 28.  Long-line paraglider with payload being an active kite resisting the paraglider's upper wing

o    Alternative related terms, spellings, and abbreviation:  
para glider
para gliding
gliding parachute
governable parachute
limp-canopy gliding
string-controlled canopy gliding
string-controlled canopy glider
free-flight manned limp-canopy kite system

o    Paraglider - Land Landing for Gemini [Paperback] Ed Hengeveld & Henry Matthews  

o    See in one system: landboard, waterboard, skyboard    video:   Resistive set changes from land carving to free-falling (dangling) (and some aero-slicing), to water carving.

o  meteoroid paraglider


o    Oct 5, 2011, version of Wiki on Paraglider

o    Paraglider hang gliders of NASA, partial study HERE.

o    Paraglider is a "house of cards."   Merriam-Webster online for "house of cards": a structure, situation, or institution that is insubstantial, shaky, or in constant danger of collapse."

o        PDF at 11 MB Technical Note D-1009
AND LEADING-EDGE SWEEP  By Paul G. Fournier and B. Ann Bell
Langley Research Center, Langley Air Force Base, Va.
January 1962

o        Count 71

o    Flying a paraglider on kite strings  
Comment: Parafoil wing used in a paraglider system is being used for long-line ground kiting with minor jump glides and moving-body-around-field resistive kiting play.

o    Apollo Spacecraft Paraglider Deployment (Rogallo Wing) 1963 NASA Langley   Video: 8 min   The four-boomed inflatable boomed flex-wing kite-wing hang glider in tests under transonic airspeeds ...


Some examples of large canopy-paragliders


·         Paragliding is the launching, flying, and landing of gliding kite systems; the mission of paragliding may include humans onboard or not onboard; paragliding may be done for peace or war, for commerce or play, for model testing or for gliding oneself in sport and recreation. Paragliding is the flying of a paraglider at any size and with any payload for any purpose. Model builders do model paragliding via radio control or just passive gliding of unmanned paragliders. UAV industrial paragliding includes the use of mission-specific unmanned paragliders.

·         "Paragliding is the slowest and apparently riskiest way to get from one place you don't really need to be to another."      Anon?


·         Paragliding fatalities and injurious incidents    

o    wiki   

o    Data collectors:   Ref1   Ref 2   Ref3   Ref4   Ref5      Data arrives from site reporters, victim families, participants, observers, public agencies, police reports, newspaper reporters, club newsletters, forum notes,

o    Analysis of raw data:     Various levels of analysis of the fatalities and injurious incidents occur by analysts, researchers, organizational representatives, authors, participants, accident committees, etc. The quality of accident analysis varies widely from poor to high. Branching what is in focus in an analysis matters; looking at incidents in non-sport (industry, military, commerce) paragliding is sometimes set in focus. Sport paragliding is frequently studied in two large branches: 1. the airframed paraglider (segment of hang gliders) , and 2. the non-airframed paraglider (proper subset of hang gliders) popular in sport paragliding. Further branching of study is found: the non-paraglider hang glider that has not even one tether in the tether set (thus empty tether set) like the Otto Lilienthal gliders, the Swift, the Batso, the VJ-23, etc., may be studied in itself as to fatalities and injurious incidents, the most famous of which is the 2000th flight of Otto Lilienthal himself when the crash resulted in his death. Then a branch of accident analysis often in focus is the paraglider that has an airframe and the tethered pilot has the option to directly couple with the airframe for controlling the flight of the glide (like the Falcon 3 hang glider or Seed Wing's Sensor710 hang glider which are airframed paragliders that has such a short tether set that permits the pilot able to grab the airframe for control purposes).

·         Paragliding training

o    How to connect to your paraglider while looking at it for reverse launch     You are the anchor to the kite system; connect with appropriate harness. Practice on flat ground. Wing run or ground kiting practice on flat ground in non-thermic conditions.

o    Consider how each known fatality occurred. Incomplete list:  Consider how each injury occurred. 

o    Demo of ground handling Etc. in Strong winds   

o    World ParaGliding Association  WPGA

o    Sample of incident: April 2010 lead to a low altitude wing collapse, resulting in dislocated shoulder, cracked rib and knee ligament 

o    Accidente de parapentista en la Costa Verde

o    Muerte en Parapente


·         Parahawking        Video1

·         parakite                       GeneralLink

·         parakites

·         paraplane    (dominant use is to be under power with gliding as far secondary purpose); differently is powered paraglider that has dominant aim at the gliding sector while using the power for launch and special needs).

·         paramotoring                wiki       Usually the payload has the motor. System may be human-powered enhanced.  Both ICE and electric (ePG, ePM)  are evident.   These are kiting systems with the anchor or resistive set propelled by motors or engines; the anchor tows the tethered wing.

o   Forum for advancing ePM.

o    See E-Walk for an electric paramotoring advance.

·         parallel

·         parameter, parameters, parameters in AWES, parameters in kite energy systems   
| Variables  | Parameters  |  Parameters of interest to investors  |


·         parasail          

o    Parasailing/index.html

·         parasitic drag

·         parasitic line drag

·         paravane     M434       Patent

·         paravanes         See also a special-use type: otterboard or otter board

·         paravane wing        Pat1


·         parawing,  para-wing, paraglider, flex-wing  were terms often meaning nearly the same in the 1960s. After that the mixing did not stop, even up to today, albeit in some factions of users, the terms take on dominance for images of one type of wing or another.   Using the Francis Rogallo all-flexible Rogallo Wing :: parawing. Stiffening the parawing brought parawings that were stiffened.  When in glider: paraglider  (all flexible or stiffened).  Rogallo paragliders use Rogallow Wing (parawing) either fully limp or with the allowance of stiffening (many methods).

Paraglider - test of Paresev I-A Rogallo

Online Source:

 [[ Ed, Jpf:  Notice that a stiffened "parawing" at that time was "parawing" and when used as the hang glider: "Paraglider"  First flight test in the human occupied Paresev hang glider "paraglider" was in Feb. 1961, the wing of which was used in hang gliders various control frames including the triangle control frame made evident in hang glider in Breslau in 1908, first decade of the 1900s.]]


Test of Paresev I-A Rogallo research vehicle in the Full Scale wind tunnel. Richard P. Hallion wrote: 'The best way to acquire ... experience, of course, was by building and flying a Parawing. Two who actively favored such an approach were center research pilots Neil Armstrong and Milt Thompson. they approached Paul Bikle, who liked the idea, but recognized that both pilots had heavy Dyna-Soar commitments; FRC could not spare their services elsewhere, even to a project as interesting as the proposed Parawing. Instead, Bikle called in a group of center engineers under the direction of Charles Richards, a team composed of Richard Klein, Vic Horton, Gary Layton, and Joe Wilson. Bikle's instructions were characteristically short and to the point: build a single-seat Paraglider and *do it quick and cheap.' All this took place just before Christmas 1961. The team, now totaling nine engineers and technicians, set to work on this *Paraglider Research Vehicle,' conveniently abbreviated Paresev. Seven weeks later, after expending $4280 on construction and materials, the team rolled out the Paresev I. It resembled a grown-up tricycle, with a rudimentary seat, an angled tripod mast, and perched on top of the mast, a 14-square-meter Rogallo-type parawing. The vehicle weighed 272 kilograms, had a height of over 3.4 meters, and a length of 4.5 meters. The pilot sat out in the open, strapped in the seat, with no enclosure of any kind. He controlled the descent rate by tilting the wing fore and aft, and turned by tilting the wing from side to side. NASA registered the Paresev, the first NASA research airplane to be constructed totally *in-house,' with the Federal Aviation Administration on 12 February 1962. Flight testing started immediately.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 380-387; Richard P. Hallion, On the Frontier: Flight Research at Dryden, 1946-1981, NASA SP-4303, pp. 138-139.



NASA Center:

NASA (Unspecified Center)

Publication Date:

Aug 19, 1964

Publication Year:


Accession Number:


Publication Information:

NASA Langley Research Center Multimedia Repository


      • v

·         parawing, parafoil, and its associated paragliders

·         Paresev  (program and series of vehicles)    [New folder under construction:  NASA/Paresev/]


o    ParesevLIFT115000



o    The Paresev was used to gain in-flight experience with four different membranes (wings) and was not used to develop the more complicated inflatable deployment system. The Paresev was designed by Charles Richard, of the Flight Research Center's Vehicle and System Dynamics Branch, with the rest of the team being: engineers Richard Klein, Gary Layton, John Orahood, and Joe Wilson; Frank Fedor and LeRoy Barto from the Maintenance and Manufacturing Branch; Project Manager Victor Horton, with Gary Layton becoming Project Manager later on in the Program. Mr. Paul Bikle, Director of the Center, gave instructions that were short and to the point: build a single-seat Paraglider and 'do it quick and cheap.'

The Paresev was unpowered, the "fuselage" an open framework fabricated of welded 4130 steel tubing referred to as a space frame.' The keel and leading edges of the wings were constructed of 2 1/2-inch diameter aluminum tubing. The leading edge sweep angle was held constant at 50 degrees by a rigid spreader bar. Additional wing structure fabricated of steel tubing ensured structural integrity. Seven weeks after the project was initiated the team rolled out the Paresev 1. It resembled a grown-up tricycle, with a rudimentary seat, an angled tripod mast, and, perched on top of the mast, a Rogallo-type parawing. The pilot sat out in the open, strapped in the seat, with no enclosure of any kind. He controlled the descent rate by tilting the wing fore and aft, and turned by tilting the wing from side to side with a control stick that came from overhead. NASA registered the Paresev, the first NASA research airplane to be constructed totally 'in-house,' with the Federal Aviation Administration on February 12, 1962. Flight testing started immediately.

There was one space frame built called the Paresev that used four different wing types. Paresev 1 had a linen membrane, with the control stick coming from overhead in front of the pilots seat. Paresev 1A had a regulation control stick and a Dacron membrane. Paresev 1B had a smaller Dacron membrane with the space frame remaining the same. Paresev 1C used a half-scale version of the inflatable Gemini parawing with a small change to the space frame.

All space frames,' regardless of the parawing configuration, had a shield with 'Paresev 1-A' and the NASA meatball on the front of the vehicle.


After the space frame was completed a sailmaker was asked to sew the wing membrane according to the planform developed by NASA Flight Research Center personnel. He suggested using Dacron instead of the linen fabric chosen, but yielded to the engineers' specs. A nylon bolt rope was attached in the trailing edge of the 100-square-foot wing membrane. The rope was unrestrained except at the wing tips and was therefore free to equalize the load between the two lobes of the wing. This worked reasonably well, but flight tests proved the wing to be too flexible with it flapping and bulging in alarming ways. The poor membrane design led to trailing edge flutter, with longitudinal and lateral stick forces being severe. A number of different rigging modifications to improve the flying characteristics were tried, but very few were successful and none were predictable. Everything seemed to affect stick forces in the worst way.

The fifth flight aloft lasted 10 seconds. On a ground tow the Paresev and pilot fell 10 feet. Considerable damage was done to the Paresev with the pilot, Bruce Peterson, being taken to the base hospital. Injuries sustained by the pilot were not serious.

After this accident the Paresev was extensively rebuilt and renamed, Paresev-1A.


The sailmaker was asked again to construct a 100-square-foot membrane the way he wanted to. The resulting wing membrane had excellent contours in flight and was made from 6 ounce Dacron. The space frame was rebuilt with more sophistication than the Paresev 1 had. The shock absorbers were Ford automotive parts, the wing universal joint was a 1948 Pontiac part, and the tires and wheels were from a Cessna 175 aircraft. The overhead stick was replaced with a stick and pulley arrangement that operated more like conventional aircraft controls. This vehicle had much improved stick forces and handling qualities.

The instrumentation used to obtain data was quite crude, partially as a result of the desire to keep the program simple and low in cost and also because there was no onboard power. To measure performance, technicians installed a large alpha vane on the wing apex with a scale at the trailing edge that the pilot could read directly. A curved bubble level measured the vehicle's attitude, and a Fairchild camera recorded the glide slope


The Paresev 1-B used the Paresev 1-A space frame with a smaller Dacron wing (100 square feet) and was flight tested to evaluate its handling qualities with lower lift-to-drag values. One NASA project engineer described its gliding ability as "pretty scary."


The space frame of the vehicle remained almost unchanged from the earlier vehicles. However, a new control box gave the pilot the ability to increase or decrease the nitrogen in the inflatable wing supports to compensate for the changing density of the air. Two bottles of nitrogen provided an extra supply of nitrogen. The vehicle featured a partially inflatable wing. The whole wing was not inflatable; the three chambers that acted as spars and supported the wing inflated. The center spar ran fore and aft and measured 191 inches; two other inflatable spars formed the leading edges. These three compartments were filled with nitrogen under pressure to make them rigid. The Paresev in this configuration was expected to closely approximate the aerodynamic characteristics that would be encountered with the Gemini space capsule with a parawing extended. The Paresev was very unstable in flight with this configuration.

The first Paresev flights began with tows across the dry lakebed, in 1962, using a NASA vehicle, an International Harvester carry-all (6 cylinder). Eventually ground and airtows were done using a Stearman sport biplane (450 hp), a Piper Super Cub (150-180 hp), Cessna L-19 (200 hp Bird Dog) and a Boeing-Vertol HC-1A. Speed range of the Paresev was about 35-65 mph.

The Paresev completed nearly 350 flights during a research program from 1962 until 1964. Pilots flying the Paresev included NASA pilots Milton Thompson, Bruce Peterson, and Neil Armstrong from Dryden, Robert Champine from Langley, and astronaut Gus Grissom, plus North American test pilot Charles Hetzel. The Paresev was legally transferred to the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.

Despite its looks, the Paresev was a useful research aircraft that helped develop a new way to fly. Although the Rogallo wing was never used on a spacecraft, it revolutionized the sport of hang gliding, and a different but related kind of wing was tested on the X-38 technology demonstrator.

 [[Source page: HERE.]]


o    I flew the Pterodactyl Flex-Wing


o    v

o    v

o    v


·         park  (going to and staying at a point in the sky or water)

·         parking an AWES, parking a wing of a kite system, parking the wings of a complex kite system.  The landing operation may end in a parking arrangement.  A parked system might be in the weather or in a shielded situation, perhaps in a hangar.     AWES hangar.    Kite hangar.

·         parrels,   donut pulley,

·         Part 77     FAR Part 77  
     Article about: Obstructions to Navigation

·         Part 103      FAR Part 103

·         partial double surface (PDS) wing has less than 100% second skinned surface, but more than zero.. E.g., XXLite by OZONE and some hang gliders. The second surface may have skinning 10% or 20%, or 30%, etc.  Opposingly, a single-surface wing has no second surface at all.

·         passing wind   (ambient wind)  as opposed to apparent wind over a moving airfoil that may be flying cross wind.

·         passive

·         passive control

o    AWES6587

o    Lets reserve "passive" for embodied logic.      AirborneWindEnergy/message/9455


·         Passive-control AWE

·         passive controls

·         passive control sweep

·         passive controllable

·         passively controllable

·         Passive Dutch-roll power cycle    
Art1   wiki  Art2

·         passive figure-eight (Santos)        |     open-loop stable figure-eight patterns    (Houska)

·         passive flight automation (classic single-line kite stability or multiple-line kite stability as in two-line arches, etc.)

·         passive phase     (versus power or traction or production phase).  Cost phase.  Reel-in phase.

·         passive rigid structure         AirborneWindEnergy/message/9312

·         patang   

o    PATANG: The Kite Festival - A Battle of One Million Kites     video, 1 min

·         Patent matters


o    patents, kite patents, kitepatents,     Discuss each kite patent HERE.

o    Patent Cooperation Treaty

o    patentee 
Once a patent has been granted with respect to a particular country, anyone who wishes to exploit the invention commercially in that country must obtain the authorization of the patentee. In principle, anyone who exploits a patented invention without the patentee’s authorization commits an illegal act. The protection is granted for a limited period, generally 20 years. Once a patent expires, the protection ends, and the invention enters the public domain. The patentee no longer holds exclusive rights to the invention, which
then becomes available for commercial exploitation by others.
             The patent owner’s exclusive rights generally consist of the following: in the case of a product patent, the right to prevent third parties without the owner’s consent from making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing for these purposes the product;
           The patentee is not given a statutory right to exploit his own invention, but rather a statutory right to prevent others from commercially exploiting it. He may give permission, or grant a license, to other parties to use the invention on mutually agreed terms. The patentee may also sell his right to the invention to someone else, who will then become the new owner of the patent.

o    patent pool, or "patent/IP pool"  See M164  |  wiki/Patent_pool

·         AWE Patent Pool

§  Join the pool:   AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/messages/11654



o    Special collection (May not be complete for specific purpose.)

o    Kite patents group    |   KitePatents

·         pattern

·         pattern stability

·         pattern instability

·         pawl                        
    ratchet pawl, load-holding pawl, compression pawl, tension pawl, no-back pawl,

·         pay out  line

·         pay-out towing

·         payload

o    payload risers

o    payload stabilizer guys

o    payload lines

o    payload instabilities

o    payload stability

o    maximum payload

o    minimum payload

o    human payload

o    non-human payload

o    payload weight

o    payload platform

o    connections between wings and payload

o    payload stay lines

o    payload guy lines

o    payload tether set in kite hang gliders and paragliders

o    kite-system-held payloads

o    kite payload

o    WECs as payload

o    payload problems

o    working payloads

o    architectural payload

o    Airborne architecture and its payloads            |   Mothra2scalestudy   |          v

o    In a kite hang glider, the main traditional payload is the pilot's body. However, kite hang gliders may have inanimate payloads and not even have a live human pilot. In a kite hang glider, the main traditional payload is the pilot's body. However, kite hang gliders may have inanimate payloads and not even have a live human pilot. Some examples: Many hang glider manufacturers have dummy-tested their hang glider with sacks of sand and other objects; there are drone hang gliders without a human pilot on board; model hang gliders do not have a human pilot on board; space-reentry and atmospheric object-recover hang gliders do not have a human on board.


·         PBL    planetary boundary layer is the lower portion of the troposphere

·         PC        P.C.       Professor Crackpot

·         PCF   predicted capacity factor

·         PCT            Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)

·         PDA  pulled-down apex        ...type of parachute

·         PDMC     SeeHere.        Variable region above ground level where limp-canopy gliders of single surface (SSPG) or partial-second surface (P2SPG) or double surface (DSPG) have not enough time/altitude to use rescue parachutes when windfield helicities or turbulence and perhaps pilot inputs have the limp-canopy paraglider in a form (severe cravatting, collapse, gift-wrap, compound folding, etc.) that is no longer flying well enough to halt a severe falling; such results in severe injuries and death. Just how often such no-recourse arrangement is reached in paragliding is a matter under grave study. is this note. Critique and sharpening of this glossary entry is invited from all in aviation who care about this matter.

    • active air       Air that has robust helicities occurring. Thermic conditions, obstacles, industry, vehicles, machines, other aircraft, birds, trees, wind turbines, kites, ground formations,  buildings, combinations of things,  etc. are among some of the sources resulting in helicities that sum to active air. Active air is a normal characteristic of the atmosphere. Natural creatures have evolved to survive unique levels of strength of active air and to avoid the levels that exceed that strength. Humans, relatively new to flight, continue to struggle to recognize what levels of strength not to exceed with their various flying devices.
    • Helicity
      A property of a moving fluid which represents the potential for helical flow (i.e. flow which follows the pattern of a corkscrew) to evolve. Helicity is proportional to the strength of the flow, the amount of vertical wind shear, and the amount of turning in the flow (i.e. vorticity). Atmospheric helicity is computed from the vertical wind profile in the lower part of the atmosphere (usually from the surface up to 3 km), and is measured relative to storm motion. Higher values of helicity (generally, around 150 m2/s2 or more) favor the development of mid-level rotation (i.e. mesocyclones). Extreme values can exceed 600 m2/s2.

o    v

·         PDMC Effect       See      This is where the increased levels of risk in paragliding begin to produce a steady flow of incidents that no amount of pilot training or pilot experience can moderate.   DiscussHERE 

·         PDS   partial double surface wing has less than 100% second skinned surface. E.g., XXLite by OZONE and some hang gliders. The second surface may have skinning 10% or 20%, or 30%, etc.  Opposingly, a single-surface wing has no second surface at all. The Allison paraglider and its variants have single surface.   Also: P2ndS, P2S, P2SPG, P2SHG.  

·         PDSHG  partial double-surface hang glider

·         PDSPG   partial double-surface paraglider

·         PDX   Portland, Oregon, International Airport symbol.   Or other entities in Portland, Oregon.

·         PGP   para-glider person,        paragliding person       One who is eligible for free membership in WPGA.

·         peak

·         peak kick

·         pectoral fin     Ref1 

·         pedal

·         Pedalusion     

·         Peel©    ... Peter Lynn  power traction foil kite.         peels       Early two-line peels.   Later four-line peels.       1971 product introduction.     Peel kites.

·         peer economy       socially-coupled economy




o    P-2-P

o    Creating a Peer-to-Peer Economy  in Tompkins Weekly May 14, 2012    by Alex Colket

o is a peer economy expression moving towards K3 where AWES has a significant play.


·         PEGASYS     US Army's Precision and Extended Glide Airdrop System

·         Pelagic Mega-Trawling  

o    is being used by KiteLab, Illwaco, WA   AWES5963

o    codendsTRAWLING

o    NET Systems, Inc.                 About 

o    Vonin                   About 

o    V

o    V

o    V

o    V

o    V

o    V

·         Pelamis wave-energy converter    wiki

·         pendule              Kite patent use: US966143

·         pendulum

·         Pendulum Nose Rudder (PNR)   by Dennis Stevens

·         pendular motion

·         pendular motion instability

·         perfect kite or ideal kite    1896,  C. F. Marvin, winner of Chanute Prize for paper. Opposing the perfect kite or ideal kite  is the actual kite or material kite.

·         perforate, perforation, perforations

o    AirborneWindEnergy/message/8363

o    Perforated Ribbon-Wings flown from Sprockets

o    turbulators in wing mills

o    wing turbulators

o    ram-air release

o    flow controlling

o    fastening preamble


·         performance

o    performance analysis

o    performance entrophy

o    performance goals

o    performance improvement

o    performance log

o    performance review

o    performance requirements



·         period

·         perma-AWE       An AWE installation that needs little or no maintenance for a long period of time (permanent) is a perma-AWE. Contrast perma-AWE with mobile-AWE and temp-AWE.

·         PermaKytoon        A kytoon that remains effectively working for at least one year without external maintenance. The default understanding is the LTA PermaKytoon; specify heavier-than-air kytoon, if such is intended.

·         PermaLifter

·         Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)     PM

·         permanent production type         An AWECS that is only power phase and not a costing phase may be referred to as being with "permanent" production.    Such phrase is found in Tiago Pardal and Marco Freire patent and patent application, assignee Omnidea.  They referred to Miles Loyd's kiteplane in ever circling flight ever generating electricity in the flygen for transport via conductive cable; such was portrayed in contract to the reel-in-out method where there is a cycle of power phase alternating with a cost retraction phase, thus not "permanent" in generation, but on and off ...

·         persistence of vision (POV) LED array       |  AirborneWindEnergy/message/7951   | 

·         personal ascent     where a person ascends in a kite system or balloon system


·         penstock pipe 

·         perpendicular horizontal axis rotor kite      (phrase used by Stephen J. Janicki in a patent US Pat. 5909859 )     

·         perpetual high altitude operation
June 3, 2100: As reported previously, after the Leuven conference we had a group meeting at Moritz's office & discussed the challenges of "perpetual" high altitude operation, particularly large arrays. Moritz presented the basic calculations that predict strict limitations on maximum altitude. Tether weight & wind drag accumulate with altitude & especially when wind slacks one must come down or waste large amounts of power to "reverse pump". Lets review means that ease the constraints. Kites can be put all along a tether (a train) to mitigate increasing weight & drag with altitude. With multiple tethers, some can be leaned into the wind & develop some lift. A tether & kite sequence is progressively tapered, with larger sections lower. The maximum altitude state represents potential energy "in the bank" & AWECS aloft can be driven for while by sink, promoting high capacity factor. In dying wind the heaviest components can be run down promptly on halyards to greatly reduce sink rate & reverse-pumping demand. A remnant structure of aerostat lift can "reserve" a presence in the sky during calm. In rising wind the sequence reverses & added power raises everything nicely. Moritz also explained his intuition that a kite system deployment sequence be naturally reversible to recover from a fault or adapt to any dynamic need. One does not want unrecoverable conditions such as, say, a failed ballistic launch might represent.    coolIP

·         perpetual towing      RaD1  

·         persistent flight R&D         |   See also windless kiting for cousin topic list.    | 

o    FISH            Forever-in-Sky Home    |  

o           persistent flight scheme  |

o           persistent flight method  |  

o           cryogenic energy birds     |   

o           ever-up kite system      |  

o           persistent soaring system  |

o           EUK ever-up kite  |

o    perpetual flight system

·         Peter Lynn, Sr.   and Pete Lynn  (Jr.)

·         Peter Pan

·         PFA   passive flight automation   

·         phase

o    scaling-test phase

o    power phase

o    oscillation wave-form phase


·         phase change

·         phase-change technology

·         phased tugs

·         phased-tug technology

o    phased quasi self-sufficient trains in harness

o    v

o    v

o    v

·         PHES  pumped heat electricity storage     Ref1

·         Phoenix

o    MPA:



    • Reluctant Phoenix, Dan Perkins ... inflatable HPA.  Wingspan of 31 ft and an empty
      weight of 39 1b.; polyurethane-coated nylon fabric


o    Bird, mythology

o    Hang glider product


·         phonon, phononics    PhononicsGENERAL

·         photon, photonics   PhotonicsGENERAL

·         PHYN      Harness tailfin experiments by Jeff Roberson   Pod Harness Yaw Neutralizer

·         physicists

·         physics

o    kite physics

§  Draft List of Advanced Kite Physics Principles by Dave Santos, November 19, 2012.


o    v

o    v

·         physical constraints

·         pibals    pilot balloon



·         picavet

o    airbornewindenergy10630

o    KAP


o    pocavet13Nov2013for375000

o    Picavet suspension

o    Half-Picavet

·         pick-and-place work by kite systems    P&P

o    Crosswind P&P

o    Downwind P&P

o    Oblique P&P

o    Vertical P&P

o    Build dams, move people, move logs, move water, fight fires, etc., with P&P tactics

o    Relay: place payloads into a neighbor kite system. Multiply transfer pattern for a long series of exchanges.  Move payloads short or long distances, even around the world.   Consider also aerial cableways of various sorts.

o    PickAndPlacePayloadswithMultiLineKites

o    v

o    v

o    v

o    v

o    v

·         PID controller    proportional–integral–derivative controller

·         piezo  *short for piezoelectric or other full terms. The suffix is for "squeeze" or "press"

·         piezoelectric kite fabric

·         piezoelectricity    wiki           NASAipp 

·         piezoelectric effect

·         piezoelectric material on flipper or flutter or flapper kites

·         piezoelectric nanogenerator

·         piezoelectric textile

·         piezoelectric wind power       Paper1    

·         piezoelectric wind tree  

·         piezo-kite, piezoKite

·         pigtails

o    pigtails in the bridle system of a kite system      KitePigtailsGENERALimages

o    universal kite line pigtails


·         Pilcher.      Percy Sinclair Pilcher

·         pilot;     autopilot;    human pilot;    kite pilot;        kite-system pilot;    person or machine that controls the operations of a kite system  [Distinguish pilot-kite which is a first-up kite that frequently is a skyhook for supporting other lower operations.)]

·         pilot balloon     pibal      pibals

·         pilot-induced oscillation   PIO

·         pilot kite, pilot-kite     

·         piloted kite, piloted AWECS, piloted kite system  (use of human to oversee programs and operations during the kite system operation; this differs from passive control and also from automatic robotic control systems for AWECS).

·         pilot/lifter

·         "Pilot Nose" Kite Arch Feature      AWES6460   A "Pilot Nose" is being incorporated in to the 300m2 Tarp Arch under construction in Austin. It will serve two key functions- 1) as the basic launch-or-land-on-demand mechanism, and 2) to prevent or better recover from luff.

Much as a bull can be controlled by a ring in its nose, it should be easy for a single person to pull on the nose line to bring the kite down, or slack it to let the kite park at its zenith. Peter Lynn uses a similar line for his giant manta-ray kites.

Kites are subject to luffing in turbulence, and a kite arch can still luff, even though a full-span luff is unlikely. The new Pilot Nose has a sort of ski-tip curve to its bamboo spine that strongly keeps the center form luffing, and speeds recovery in a luff.

The Pilot Nose component is being developed with the Pablo Ortiz family of Austin, known for their long-standing dominance in the DIY large-kite competition, the climax event of the local kite festival. This year they won with 83yr old Pablo Ortiz Sr. handling the kite alongside his son and grandson, also named Pablo, and of course the many extended family members who haul the ropes. The Pilot Nose is in effect the Ortiz bamboo and plastic kite embedded into the tarp arch as a forward stabilizer and control surface.


·         pilot site    for an AWECS installation

·         PIO   pilot-induced oscillation

·         pitmen          sometimes meaning a connecting rod; see kite patent.

·         PKRA  Professional Kiteboard Riders Association      [ED: The name will challenge those who are seeing themselves as moving moorings of a kite, i.e., where a kite is considered as the integrated combination of a wing, tether, and opposing mooring; a human who is the mooring may often be seen as a wing while the lofted wing at the other end of the tether is relatively a mooring.]   Art2   

·         Piney Mountain Air Force      Archive of newsletter

·         pinwheel

·         piston

·         pitch

o    pitch-based dynamic maneuvering, harvest a lot of energy by using dynamic maneuvering,

§  Gary Osoba

§  See differently: lateral dynamics, lateral dynamic maneuvering

o    pitching

o    pitching lane

o    pitchy, pitch-sensitive

o    pitch inertia

o    pitch stability

o    pitch instability

o    oscillating pitch

o    pitch control

o    pitch controls

o    pitch-control devices

o    weight-shift control for pitch changes

o    aerodynamic surfaces for control of pitch

o    pilot-induced pitch oscillations

o    pitch problems

o    dive-recovery devices

o    reflex

o    pitch-sensitive airfoils

o    pitch control by tails

o    passively stabilizing tail surface

o    active pitch control

o    passive pitch control

o    angle of attack

o    v

·         pivot, pivots, pivoting, pivot-holes,

·         PK practical kiting, practical kite, practical kites, working kites, kites at work, doing practical tasks by using kite systems,

·         PKME   perpetual kite materials engineering         CoopIP

·         PKT   power kite technology

·         PL     platform launch

·         PL Kites      Peter Lynn kites           airbornewindenergy/conversations/messages/11816

·         PL Kites Ltd.      Peter Lynn   

·         planar mechanisms

·         plane

·         planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lower portion of the troposphere

·         planetary gears

·         planform    In aviation, a planform is the shape and layout of a fixed-wing aircraft's fuselage and wing

·         planing

·         planning

·         plasma

·         plasma kite

·         plasma motor generator (PMG)

·         PlaySail, Play Sail,  playSail,    Ref1    Vid1     Ref2   Ref3   Ref4   M378     playsail
Flat rectangular sail kited  under control ...   Play sails of George Peters.      Also, look at the non-rotating arch ribbon kites as wide playsails, battened or not.    Consider Čtienne Veyres of France with his two-anchor arch ribbon that was not a rotating ribbon but a wide kite.   "Among the project of Etienne are illuminate electric Arches, rotating Arches that fly with no wind and multiple Arches set on a radiating pattern." Kite Lines, V9N3p40Fall1992. Valerie Govig confirms that the arch ribbon had unknown ancestors.   Look to not only Japan, but early aviator kite experiments.
    See 1980 Yoshida's Flying Fence flown by scouts at the JKA kite festival.

o    Play-sail tarp kite: BIGGEST KITE IN THE WORLD  [[Ed: not the biggest kite in the world, except to those at the scence.]]



·         PLC         programmable logic controller                 Use1      Site2       Wiki   

·         PMA      Permanent Magnet Alternators     Ref1  

·         PMG       Permanent magnet generator

·         Pneuma      Ref1


·         (PNR)   Pendulum Nose Rudder 


o    Also: Dennis Stevens 


·         PoA     Program of activity

·         Pocock, George., The Aeropleustic Art.      wiki    The Aeropleustic Art or Navigation in the Air by the use of Kites, or Buoyant Sails  

·         poise                   poising

·         poiser   

·         poise-point of the bridle

·         poising   

·         pole

o    Stay poles from above using kite systems   

o    magnetic poles

o    earth's geographic poles



·         pole kiting        Our folder: PoleKiting     

·         political analysis

·         pollination and flight systems   

o    The beauty of pollination


·         polygon

·         polygonal cableway (approximates circular cableway)

o    Rod Read on April 6, 2012:     "If a layer of hexagonal mesh of tarp kixels was flown above a layer of hexagonal meshed steering cableway... where the steering points line up and connect to the centre of a radial slots arranged in the centre of the tarp kixel. Tensioning on the steering mesh ground tether points on the upwind of steering set, would allow a working 3D mega arch."

o    v

o    v

·         polyphase

·         polystable


·         polyurea spray



·         polyurethane  PUR       wiki 

·         pony generator  "A "pony" motor or generator is a small unit to do light duty when the major unit is overkill or as back-up."

·         pony motor

·         pooled IP [AWE researchers, designers, and scientists pool intellectual property in order to rapidly develop working installations of AWECS, especially in utilityAWE and commercialAWE.]

·         pop-gun launch of a aircraft or kite system            wiki  

·         "Pop Kan Kite" by Goodwinds Kites

·         porosity

o    variable porosity material

o    porosity variations

o    porosity as a control mechanism

o    specified porosity

o    starch on porous sheet will lower porosity

o    graduated porosity       AWES7243

o    smart porosity

o    controlled porosity


·         port     wiki for nautical port    See its opposite: starboard. 
Memory tool:  "PS" ...alphabetical:: left right.:: Port ^ Starboard.:: P^S.    Another tool:  ( red, green) with notice of how long the two words are in mimic of size as the sizes of the words port^starboard.   
                Red port  
  /^\         Green starboard     

·         portage cart       Ground carry kite system with a portage art.     AWES6698

·         Post, Wiley.    Wiley Post    see Post, Wiley.     wiki    When KESs or AWEs use very high altitude in tethered or Two-Kite-FreeFlight, then the pursuits of Wiley Post will be recalled.

·         posture

·         posture control

·         posture control instrument

·         posture control strings

·         potential energy

·         potential industry, potential AWECS industry, potential AWE industry,    These phrases refers to the concept that an industry for AWECS has not yet started.  What will things look like when the industry is born? The AWE industry will be born when _________________________.
   Send the finish of that sentence to    Thanks.

·         potential power

·         potentiometer     wiki   

·         Potter kite

o    Potter diamond cell kite

·         Poul La Cour

·         pound, pound force      wiki/Pound_(force)

·         power

o    kW

o    kVA      [ Study:  wiki/Volt-ampere ]

o    kVAR    (reactive power)  [ Be aware of abuse of symbols.  wiki/Volt-ampere_reactive   Review:  Council Directive on units of measurements 80/181/EEC: "Special names for the unit of power: the name volt–ampere (symbol ‘VA’) when it is used to express the apparent power of alternating electric current, and var (symbol ‘var’) when it is used to express reactive electric power." Chapter 1.2.3., p. 6]

o    average power

o    wiki/Power_(physics)

o    wiki/Electric_power

§   The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second.

§  v

o    v

·         power acceleration unit named "Faust" at 0.028 J/s^2           M3811      
Unit named by engineer David Carmein.    A system that is accelerating its level of power output may be compared using the Faust unit.

·         power buffer         M382   

·         power content of wind  or fluid flow
        "cube of wind velocity"

·         power converter mechanism

·         power cycle

o    power-cycle intermittency  



·         power density

·         powered-flight-through-calm strategy     (various means)
See also: powered-reel-in-through-calm strategy 

·         powered paraglider PPG          

·         powered parachute    PPC            wiki       Jet-powered parachute: The Troy Hartman Jetpack

·         powered paraplane         History

·         powered-reel-in-through-calm strategy

·         Power factor


o    KVAR

o    v

·         power-generating kites

·         power-generating kite systems

·         power generation

·         power-generation cycle, power-generation phase,

·         powerkitemaker

·         power kite repair

·         power kites, tethered airfoils

·         power kites for naval propulsion, power kites for naval traction, power kites for naval sailing,

·         power kite technology   PKT

·         power mode

·         power phase

·         power per wind speed curve     This is a core parameter for a wind turbine.      Definition.

·         power piston

·         PowerPlane™  (a kite in an AWE system by  Ampyx Power )

·         PowerPlane®  (a registered name for a thin battery from )

·         PowerPlanes®      as written in an Ampyx Power document

·         power production cycle, power phase, power stroke, gain sector

·         power pulse

·         Power Sail      Dan Tracy     Highest Wind Hawaii

·         PowerShip        Term used by LTAwindpower, Inc

·         power signal

·         Power station    

·         power stroke

·         power drop-off      PDO


o    v

o    v

·         power-removal method           How is energy removed from the AWES?

·         power take-off   PTO

o    Caution about this phrase in possible confusion with the launching of an aircraft or watercraft.

o    Taking energy away from one arrangement to another may be done by devices that take away or take off energy from a flow.



o    High Speed Trolley

o    "The power take-off system is where the electricity in Deep Green is produced. It consists of a generator driven by a turbine at the front of the nacelle."

o    Kite PTO   at kPower

o    kPTO

o    "Power Take-Offs (PTOs) are mechanical gearboxes that attach to apertures provided on truck transmissions and  are used to transfer the power of the vehicle engine to  auxiliary components," QuoteSource

·         power take-up        PTU    


·         power tether for flygen

·          power tether and radius tether:   Discussion in 2003 by Kiteguy of Newburg, Oregon: Wayne German

·         power transfer

·         power transformation, power transformation system

·         power transmission

·         power winch

·         powerwing  PowerWing   |  NASA Powerwing      | NASA PowerWing  |  NPW5 3.1, NPW9 5.3 ,  etc.

·         power wing

·         power wing profiles

·         power zone  

·         PPG    powered paragliding, para-motoring, free-flight powered kiting. This may be done with humans aboard or not. Scales from tiny to huge.    This is a powered kite system where the anchor or resistive set is with a motorized fan to propel the anchor while the tethered wing kites and gives lift to all components of the system.  

·         PPN   Precision Profile Nose (PPN) System   is a gliding-kite (paragliding)  term used in the gliding kites for speedgliding.    Precision leading edge.   PPNplus.       

·         PPP    or   3P     Private Public Partnership (aka 3P)

·         PQR apparatus, roll-pitch-yaw apparatus, x-y-z apparatus,  Euler angles (phi,theta,psi),    ΦΘΨ,

·         practical kite, practical kites

·         practical kiting   PK  purposeful kiting      Put kite systems to work to perform practical tasks, produce energy, fulfill needs. See KiteApplications public forum.     See our site and its stakeholders.

·         precept

o    Keep in mind the kite precept that "If it can tangle, it will."

o    v

o    v

o    v

o    v

o    v

·         Precision Profile Nose (PPN) System

·         predicted capacity factor       PCF

·         premature failure

·         pre-rebound

·         pressure, flow

·         pressure gradient force  PGF

·         pressure sensor

·         pressure towing  

·         prevailing wind

·         preventers  

o    Simpler Easy-Belay Rotation of a MegaScale Arch

o    wiki/Preventer

o    v

o    v

·         primitive kite 

·         proa     proa

·         proas

·         processor      Many... e.g. Intel 8051 processor,  Freescale 68HC11 or HC11 or 6811,  etc.

·         production phase (or power phase) [couples with recovery phase (or cost phase)  in yo-yo method or reel-in-and-out method]

·         production verification

·         professional

o    professional kiting

o    professional hang gliding

o    professional kites

o    v

·         programmable parts 

·         progressive luffing of an arch by weathercocking to douse the system       SeeHere

·         progressive stability mechanisms

·         Prohibited area      P area

·         Project Sea Tree    by Dennis Stevens

·         propel

·         propeller

·         propellers

·         propellers

o    inverse propeller

o    inverted propeller

o    driving or driven propeller

·         propelling power       "kite as a propelling power"

·         properties

o    Intensive and extensive properties       | wiki |

o    scale-invariant properties

o    scale-dependent properties, size-dependent properties,        | Art1 |

o    quantum properties

o    bulk properties

o    handling properties

o    nanoscale properties    |  nanoscale |

o    v

·         propulsion

·         propulsive kite

·         propulsive wing      wiki


·         propulsor kinematics 

o    Coordination of multiple appendages in drag-based swimming

o    Jellyfish

o    Eels

o    Land snakes

o    Birds

o    Insects

o    Seeds


·         proof-of-concept

·         prospects for the commercialization of high altitude wind power          
This is one aims of KiteEnergySystems: to explore the systems that would mine upper windpower and be commercialized.      Artticle33   

·         prospective production partner

·         prow      wiki

·         Prusik knot     wiki

·         PTO   power take off     wiki

  • PU bladders      polyurethane bladders   "The fabric envelope is not airtight, so we need an internal bladder"

o    Inflatable beam test  video showing burst.  What pressure?  What casing?

o    v

o    v

·         public awareness of AWE

o    v

·         pucker line for arch kite.    Pinch line for arch kite.   AoA line for arch kite.     ~JoeF, 2012




·         pull-cord generator       Pull a cord to rotate to drive the generator; let sprag and spring return to start; repeat to drive generator again.   Such device may be used in some AWES.   Human-powered generators for cousins to this matter.   Cord may be pulled by human muscle or by fall of mass in a machine, a kite pulling the line, etc.   Think of regenerative systems also.  Turn the generator shaft by pulling a cable or cord!      Old tech; public domain.


·         pulled pulses    AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/messages/11865

·         pull

o    intermittent line pull

o    phased tugging

o    traction

o    pull-down gadget  [openable pulley can close over extant tether)]

o    pull levers

o    pull to rotate drum

o    pull plows

o    pull hulls

o    pull control lines

o    pull cable loops

o    pull carts

o    pull kiteboarder


·         pullers              AWES5288

·         pulling

·         pulling oscillations

·         pulling pulse

·         pulling stage, ascent stage, power phase, production phase, production stage, power cycle, generating phase, generation stage,

·         pulley   pulleys    wiki        Supply1   Supply2 

o    double pulley, double pulleys

o    kite pulleys


·         pulsation

·         pulse

·         pulsing

·         pulsing pulls


·         pulse

·         pulses

·         pultrusion

·         pump

·         pumped hydro storage        Two-tank system.   Ponds, lakes, sea dams, ..

·         pumped storage.

·         pump

·         pumping

o    short-stroke pumping

o    long-stroke pumping

o    pumping cycle    AWES6485

o    pumping kite

o    pumping kite generator         Paper22 

o    pumping line     AirborneWindEnergy/message/8827    

o    pumping mill 

o    pumping operation

o    pumping fluids (gases and liquids and slurries).   And by the service of energy kite systems.

o    pumping water by the service of energy kite systems  AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/messages/12553

·         pumping cycle       

o    Yo-yo method

§  Production phase followed by costing phase; reel-in phase followed by reel-out phase; generation phase followed by energy-cost phase (while lowering resistance of the wing set).

o    HighWind tutorial    |

o    Note: By use of loop, a system may rotate continuously in one direction; in such, a return sector of the loop is phased to low resistance; such loop tactic hides the pumping cycle by continuous powering that is reduced by the continuous cost of the residual resistance in the return-low-resistance sector of the loop.  In the power sector of the loop, the wings may be either drag based, HAWP based, or large cross-winding-wing based. ~JpF, June 2, 2012.    [[Entry is on hot seat for peer review:    AWES6481     AWES6485 ]]

o    pumping cycles in AWES come in a variety of forms, some full drag-based and some based on crosswind techniques.

·         "punch turn" the kite

·         Puro Yonke     

·         push

·         pushback

·         pyramid attachment        Line forks to form a pyramid with base points in the wing.

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