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Kite Energy Fundamentals and Applications

Table of Contents
Kite-Energy Glossary
aka: Airborne Wind Energy Textbook
... being built since January 7, 2009.
Anyone is invited to help build an effective kite energy glossary for all   Send to

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z             Other glossaries of interest

  • machine

  • machine for aerial naviagation

  • machine for mining wind energy

  • Mach number     wiki    

  • Mach           Ernst Mach

  • machine capacity for generating power

  • machine language      "Thus Natural Language becomes a Machine Object following usage in Knowledge-Based Computing, particularly predicate-calculus."   And, "... its pseudo-code in anticipation of consistent technical use either in training or computation, where one word (or compounded word) is a standard formal object."   DS

  • MacroKite        SeeHere

  • Magenn

  • Magenn Power's MARS    

  • Magenn Power Air Rotor System (M.A.R.S)

  • Magenn blimp turbine, Magenn Magnus-effect kytoon turbine,

  • magic carpet    or flying carpet         wiki    |   M3103

  • magnet   magnets         electromagnet       permanent magnet  
    Magnets in Kite Systems 

  • magnetic

  • magnetic bearings      

  • magnetic clutch

  • magnetic kite

  • magnetic rotors

  • magnetics

  • magnetic sail     Wiki  

  • magnetism

  • magsail    magsails   magsailing 

  • maintenance cost 

  • maelstrom  

  • Magnus, Gustav       Gustav Magnus;  
    Heinrich Gustav Magnus (2 May 1802 – 4 April 1870)

  • Prof. G. Magnus of Berlin. Poggendorff's Annalen

  • Magnus-Robins effect    Magnus-Robins effect

  • Magnus effect

  • The Magnus effect develops relatively weak force because it is merely the surface drag effect of a rotating cylinder or sphere. It is a pitiful or fraudulent basis for a wind power, but does usefully curve the flight of balls in sports like ping-pong or baseball. The Flettner Rotor is a vertical Magnus Rotor used as a failed powered "sailing" rig.

    A Savonius Turbine develops weak force in Magnus fashion by the "exaggerated texture" of drag buckets. Sadly the return side drag is high due to the buckets returning in headwind, even though the spinning Savonius looks quite powerful.

    A Darrieus Turbine develops more force for the amount of material by using airfoils and not having the bluff-body drag of a solid center, but its still poorly competitive with the modern HAWT, especially on a weight-to power basis, although the Flexor Turbine updates the Darrieus as a lighter soft-wing.

    The Prism Flip Kite , like Magenn (anybody remember them?), both wrongly invoke the Magnus Effect in marketing, seemingly as a "magnificent" label. Magenn's design is a Savonius drag bucket affair, and the Flip Kite™ is not a cylinder at all, but a flat wing doing tight backwards loops around an empty center-of-rotation. Such a wing can be best described as a horizontal Darrieus variant. The clever part is that gets a bit of extra efficiency by creating self-lift as a kite, using a Froude Number effect (gravity as a return force for a short vertical sweep). Given that a HAWT gives up some efficiency angled for self-lift as an autogyro, the two concepts tend to approach a similar performance level.


  • Paper:  Magnus effect and dynamics of a spinning disc in a rarefied medium  

  • Magnus-effect dirigible kytoon        One version is to have aloft recharge of hydrogen buoyancy gass via aloft making of the hydrogn from atmospheric moisture via use of energy from one or both of solar radiation and kite energy.

  • Magnus-effect kytoon

  • Magnus-effect kytoon turbine      See also: blimp turbine, Magenn blimp turbine,

  • Mahaffy                           Kevin Mahaffy    

  • mainline

  • maintenance

  • Mai Tai Kite Camp          See also Bill Tai  and Susi Tai

  • Makani M1    proposed 1 MW product

  • Makani Power
  • Malay kite [concern with "Maylay" also in research. And Maley.]        wiki           GenSearch
  • MALE   medium altitude long endurance UAS
  • malfunction      
  • Manalis, M. S.      Page1 
  • man-carrying kite, man-lifting kite system
  • maneuvering zone
  • maneuvers
    • Free-flight aircraft maneuvers
    • Tethered-wing kite maneuvers
      • v
      • v
      • v
      • v
      • v
  • Man-flying kites
    • Pilot-in-system kite hang gliders of canopy or frame sort are man-flying kites where the resistive set is freely falling in the same media as the wing set.
    • v
    • v
  • Manjhas        glass-coated kite line flying aimed at cutting opponent's tether.   Art1  
  • manless kites        are kite systems without a human in the air on the tether set or in the wing set.
  • man-lifter
  • man-lifting kite system
  • manometer          wiki
  • man-powered aircraft, woman-powered aircraft   see: human-powered aircraft

  • manualAWE    manual AWECS    manualAWECS   
    These systems are fully manually controlled by a human pilot without any automatic controls.    [Differently are AWECS being driven by programs without human intervention--except by safety-critical manual override--during a flight session. ] 

    Semi-automatic systems (like human-pilot supervising autopilot or manual launch/retrieve) will be common.  Semi-automatic AWECS are not purely "manual."

    All systems should have some sort of manual override.

    Direct control
    -control with radio system operated immediately by human pilot
    -with or without anchor

  • Manual flygen          Manual flygen for loading mobile phone or laptop
  • manufacturing methods
  • maps
  • mapping
    • mapping by use of balloons and kites
    • Energy may be saved by using balloons, kytoons, and kite systems to map regions.
    • KAP
  • Marc Ricketts
  • marine renewables
  • marine airborne energy  (MAE)  (kiteboating, kites hips, kite yachts, kiteboarding, kite hydrofoiling, traction of cargo ships, kite traction of energy barges, etc.)
    • Energy for traction for travel
    • Energy for traction with water turbines at water hull
    • Onboard-hull electric generators using kite system drivers
    • Natural or artificial island base for AWECS ... mid sea operations for KES
  • marketing AWE
  • marketing promise                  See also technical promise
  • market share      Each successful energy kite system will populate its market share.
  • marine turbine
  • Maritime zones and boundaries
  • M.A.R.S.   Magenn Power Air Rotor System (M.A.R.S), M.A.R.S.
  • mast
  • matched kites flying side by side      "To add to Bob's suggestion for a direct experimental method to quantify kite dynamics, KiteLab has long proposed using matched kites flying side by side, with minor changes made to one. By flying long enough one gets a sound indication of the value of the change made, a sort of empirical genetic algorithm. "  ds
  • material
    • materials for making ultralight structures
    • low density materials
    • foams
    • inflatables
    • fillers
    • aerogels
    • world's lightest solids
    • Aerographite
  • Material Safety Data Sheet    MSDS       wiki/Material_safety_data_sheet
  • material effectiveness
  • mathematics plays its role in AWECS, kiting, gliding   
  • MAV     Micro Air Vehicles       Art1   Art2    MAVs      wiki3 
    MAV   Miature Air Vehicles      wiki2
  • MAWE             See MA    at top.
  •  Maxim, Sir Hiram    
  • Mean time between failures    MTBF
  • Means, James.    James Means.   aka: John Meade        The Aeronautical Annual 1865.   ... 1866.   ... 1867.     And more.
  • measures     Kite energy systems' parameters can be measured.  What measures are considered important?
  • measures of kite element efficiency
  • mechanical diode     "A "mechanical diode" is a one-way drive like a sprag, clutch, or ratchet. Used with a spring return, or opposed, they can be well-suited to convert kite tug cycles into rotary power. Such an AWES can be a single tiny unit, but the potential exists for large arrays of semi-chaotic kite elements to collectively drive common shafting well into gigawatt scale.

    Progress continues in mechanical drives. This one-way drive innovation comes from from auto racing; Epilogic's Mechanical Diode (TM)-    Check out the entire site for excellent background information.

    The AWES idea here is that reciprocating and geared power can win the race if its shown to be far cheaper and more practical than any direct-rotary design (like most cars). "  DS, 
  • mechanics       Mechanics of elastic bodies.
  • mechanisms        Art1   
  • mechatronic control unit
  • mega
  • MegaFly, Mega-Fly  This is a very large gliding kite.
  • Mega-Scale Kite Aerogel (MSKA)
  • membrane
  • membrane technology
  • membrane wingmill, Membrane WingMill, Membrane Wing-Mill (MWM)
    "membrane wingmills always self-start by instability, unlike many panel wingmills"  Dave Santos
  • Membraphobia        fear of using fabric in AWECS   M3388
  • Memorandum of Understanding among those grouping in some manner   MOU
  • Mems and Nems   .micro- and nano-electromechanical systems.
  • merry-go-kites       See carousel method.  See KiteGen Carousel
  • merry-go-round generator
  • mesoscale   
  • metachronal rhythm    wiki 
    • metachronal waves
    • metachrony        AWE4357         
  • Meta

    metakite     (ref DaveS, Dec. 6, 2010) Metakites have multiple lifting body elements, perhaps multiple tethers. Kite arches, kite meshes, kite fences, spider-web tether fields with lifting elements connected to nodes, etc.   Stacks, trains, coteries, etc. would be metakites.  PREFERRED new term: MacroKite. MacroKite        SeeHere


  • metals
    • light metals
  • meter
  • metering
  • meteorological model
  • meteorology
    • meteorologist, registered meteorologist, certified meteorologist
    • meteorological societies   wiki/Category:Meteorological_societies 
    • meteorological studies
    • history of meteorology
    • kites and meteorology
  • methods of airborne wind energy conversion systems
  • metrics
  • MFAP    Multi-Mission Frameless Airship Platform    
  • microavionics   
  • microcapital diversification strategy
  • microcapital network
  • microcontroller   
  • microgeneration technologies
  • microgenerator
  • micrometeorology     wiki      Microscale meteorology  


  • micro kite energy       Sector of microwind or distributed wind that uses kites or AWECS          
  • micro-scale AWE     microAWE    microAWECS     microLAAWECS   microMAAWECS    microSSAWECS   microHAAWECS
    Other sectors of AWE scale: utility-scale AWE, commercial-scale AWE, residential-scale AWE, nomadic-scale AWE, sport-scale AWE, toy-scale AWE, miniature-scale AWE, or micro-scale AWE
  • microwave
  • micro wind, microwind       
  • mid-lat            middle latitude
  • Military
    • military kites
    • defense literature affecting kiting, hang gliding, AWES
    • Kiting and kytoons in military operations
  • Milković,                    Veljko Milković      Video1      Video2     
    Related: "2 stage oscillator with twin rotor generator" video.
  • mill
  • mill rotors       windmill kite rotors
  • Mims
    • Forrest Mims        
      wiki:      Forrest M. Mims III 
    • "Science from the string of a kite; 4 October 2000"  SCIENCE COLUMNS IN SEGUIN GAZETTE-ENTERPRISE.  Series began 10 January 1999. The column is being expanded to include the San Antonio Express-News. Forrest M. Mims III
    • Sarah Mims        Using kites to collect spores locally carried by wind from distant places.  Art1
  • miniature-scale AWE
    Other sectors of AWE scale: utility-scale AWE, commercial-scale AWE, residential-scale AWE, nomadic-scale AWE, sport-scale AWE, toy-scale AWE, miniature-scale AWE, or micro-scale AWE
  • minicontroller
  • minimalist surf-zone energy experiments   M371
  • minimal mass to maximal power in 3D space
  • mini wing      
  • Mio      Mio.  
  • mirror
  • mirror effect
  • mishap rate         If it can happen, it will.  If it can misshapen, it will.  Rate of mishaps is key to AWECS performance.
  • missile, missiles in AWESs      AWES5277
  • MLK, MLKs,  multiline kites, multi-line kite, multi-line kite system, multiple-line kite system
  • Mobile Airborne Wind Energy  
  • mobile AWE, mobile-AWE installation.   See related terms: perma-AWE, temp-AWE.
  • mobile AWE demonstrator
  • mobile demonstrator,   mobile AWE demonstrator,
  • mobilegen        See KiteGen history.    
  • MobileGen KSU1       SEEhere         and    M2849
  • mode
  • mode shapes
  • modern energy
  • modular
  • modularity
  • modulus of elasticity
  • Monopede is a kite system having exactly one main tether to the wing set. In such naming, we see n-pede kite systems with n assigned a positive integer. Then centipede, millipede, etc. Discuss.
  • mono-skin wing        See single-skin.     Consider David Barish. And John Travell. And Francis Rogallo. And NASA wing. And Pere Casellas in Barretina HyperLite.  And OZONE experimentations.   And Dave Culp in OutLeader.

  • mooring   moorings, anchoring, anchors, mooring systems     
    K: {W1,T,W2}     Moorings can be seen as an essential part of AWES, kite-energy systems, kites, kite; mooring may be seen as W1 which is a wing set giving reaction to forces in T from play with W2 set of wings.  W1 moors W2, W2 moors W1; the T permits the mooring to occur.
    • mooring dirigible aircraft
    • mooring LTA AWES
    • mooring LTA kite systems
    • mooring winch
    • anchor, anchoring, anchor field
    • mooring station
    • mobile mooring station
    • anchor station, kite station, ground station
    • mooring of a kite, kite mooring  
    • statics and dynamics of the mooring system
    • safety at the mooring station

  • morphable wings (shape-changing)
  • Morse Sled         Nick Morse
  • MOSFET    metal oxide semiconducting field effect transistor      wiki  
  • Mothra
  • Mothrapolis
  • MothraTech    
  • motion
  • motion amplification                                            [thx ARP, March 7, 2013]
  • motion instability
  • motion stability
  • motive aëroplane  (powered aircraft)
  • motive captive aëroplane   (powered aircraft that is nevertheless held captive by tether set)
  • motor
  • Motorwave   Motorwave
  • Motorwind
  • Mouillard, Louis          [search also with one "l" in last name]
  • MOU   Memorandum of Understanding   among those grouping
  • mount, to mount          "caused the kite to mount"  (Simpson, 1905). The wing and tether of the kite system would climb higher in the sky.
  • mountain board, moutainboard,      wheeled board drawn by kite system
  • mounted kites
  • mounting tab
  • moving-anchor AWECS, moving kite anchor, moving root of kite system, Moving-Root Kite (MRK) System by Dennis Stevens in Project Sea Tree,  etc. Wings involved are scalable with use of any type of kite or kytoon wing from toy to utility-scale super wings. Anchors of tethered wings may be anything that provides resistance resulting in a maintenance of tether-set tension enabling the kiting. Distinguish powered anchors from anchors that move because of the kiting system; anchors may be most simple and stay fixed or may stay moving with simple drag downwind; or anchors may themselves veer crosswind as in tacking or railed karting or paravaning or tacking.
    • David Lang included moving kite anchor in year 2004 survey of methods; see buggy and sail with power being collected in both directions.
    • See all of notes and patent surrounding Jong Chul Kim
    • See all KitVes notes and development
    • See all of Dave Santos notes and developments regarding axled generators in pulled train cars, carts, ships, etc.
    • Generator on shoe-skates: tethered wing crosswinds and pulls person on shoe skates; the generator charges personal batteries.
    • See Project Sea Tree that focuses on rigid large wings and high speed crosswinding for pulling land or sea items for generating power.
    • Cabled carts, railed carts, hydrofoils, paravanes, etc. form the moving anchors or moving roots to tethered wings. Generators or pumps are driven either directly at axle or directly using turbine in air or water, or driven by use of driving lines to fixed-stationed generators while moving anchors operate.
    • See the two-kite free-flight technologies.   See Dale C. Kramer patent application on the two-kite free-flight system.  Such branch of kiting haS movement of the terminal wings, either wing may be considered the anchor or root to the other wing.
    • See Moving Root note here:
  • Mozhaiski, Alexander
  • MPPT   maximum power point tracking controller (MPPT)    AWES6352    |  wiki  |
  • MPT Microwave Power Transmission
  • MRL Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL)
  • MRK     Moving Root Kite (MRK) System     See Project Sea Tree
  • ms  is sometimes found where the intent was m/s  for meters per second.   The cause might come from the reciprocal being dropped:    ms-1
  • MSDS    Material Safety Data Sheet        wiki/Material_safety_data_sheet  
  • MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.
  • MSKA      Mega-Scale Kite Aerogel   
  • MSWP   maximum safe working pressure   
  • mt   metric tonne    see wiki
  • MT  or MTs   
  • Mean times in AWES   
    • MTBF     Mean time between failures
    • MTBCF   mean time between critical failures  AirborneWindEnergy/message/9152
    • MTBSA  mean time between system aborts
    • MTTR   mean time to repair
    • MTTF   mean time to failure
  • Motion Severity Index (MSI)
  • multikites, multi-kites,         A kite having elements that are kites: trains, trees, coteries, arches, stacks, beads, ganged, bussed, fans,  

    Multi-Line Kite (MLK) System Configurations

    = single-anchor holding terminals of multiple tethers in a kite system

    = multiple anchors holding terminals of many tethers

    = Single-line branching single-line branch or multiple-line branch

  • multiple kites on multiple lines    [sector has potential to save on aircraft fuel to launch sky divers, hang gliders, ...]
  • multi-kite techniques, multi-kite challenges, multi-kite aggregate stability,
  • multiline kites, multi-line kite, multi-line kite system, multiple-line kite system, MLK, MLKs.   Also see single-line kite, single-line kite systems, SLK, SLKs
  • Multi-Line Kite (MLK) System Configurations

    = Single-anchor holding terminals of multiple tethers in a kite system

    = Multiple anchors holding terminals of many tethers

    = Single-line branching single-line branch or multiple-line branch

    = Two-line kite systems

    = Three-line kite systems

    = Four-line kite systems

    = Five-line kite systems

    = n-line kite systems

    = FFAWE of many tethers, e.g., paragliders, gliding parachutes, some hang gliders having more than one tether to the main wing from the lower pilot-body wing, ...

    = ... (other configurations may be mentioned in this topic thread)

    Wing bridles:

    Depending on the analyst and focus, multiple-line wing bridles may be seen as MLKs constructs.  Some analysts will keep some multiple-line bridles apart from MLK qualification. 

    Textile wing covers:

    Depending on the analyst and focus, textiles in kited-wing covers may be seen as made of many lines.  Some analysts will keep textiles apart from MLK qualification. 

    Network kite systems:

    Depending on the analyst and focus, network kite systems may be seen as MLKs.

    Secondary lines in a kite system: 

    A kite system may have secondary and tertiary lines functioning to carry out specialized duties; such lines bring up the count of lines in an AWES. Some analysts will not let such secondary and tertiary lines qualify the system as an MLK; other analysts might let the MLK apply over systems having secondary and tertiary lines. E.g., stay lines, conspicuity subassembly lines, marionette lines, noisy-making lines, tailing lines, electrical lines aloft in system, trip or trigger lines, tell-tale lines, communication lines, drop lines, material-handling lines, drag lines, safety lines,  ...

  • music kite
  • musical kite        | Special music-kite image |
  • musical kites
  • musical strings
  • muscletricity    Electricity derived from using human muscles to drive a generator.
  • multibore tubing, multibore PU tubing, polyurethane tubing,
  • MW   megawatt     million watts    Article1  
  • MWM  Membrane Wing-Mill (MWM)
  • MWPG multiple-wing paraglider. Cousin: SWPG.    Multiple-wing paragliders may have two, three, four, five, or more wings in its system or stack.
  • MWR  Monthly Weather Review    
  • MWT-TAWECS    multiple wind turbine tethered airfoil wind energy conversion system      US Patent 4285481       1979 patent  
  • Mylar

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