Add term.              FAQ  

Text not available
Kite Energy Glossary
... being built since January 7, 2009.
Anyone is invited to help build an effective kite-energy glossary for all   Send to

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z             Other glossaries of interest

  • LA      liquid air   

  • LAAWE  low-altitude AWE

  • Ladder kite    AWE4544

  • Ladder kites (single line ladder kite, loop ladder kite)

  • InGroupAWESforLaddermill


  • Laddermill, Ladder Mill, LadderMill          LaddermillGENERAL

    • laddermill energy     Art1  

    • Laddermill power plant      Vid1  

    • Laddermill Project   Vid1

    • Laddermill sailing     Art1        GenLink

    • Laddermill ship 

    • Distinguish types of laddermills

      • Without main lifter kite set above the loop of rungs

      • With main lifter kite set above the loop of rungs

        • Non-LTA

        • LTA

        • Hybids

      • Stark non-gaining downing rungs

      • Stark gaining downing rungs

      • Selsam, Shepard, Ockels,

      • "KiteLab has tested several of the laddermill-like ideas. Ron Welty has a nice
        concept. Pumping trains are a ladderlike configuration under active study. Alex
        Bolonkin has ladderlike ideas like Wayne's sideways ladder mill. These develop
        power both ways (no idle return side)."  ds


  • LAES   liquid-air energy storage

  • LAGI    Land Art Generator Initiative

  • laissez-faire

  • laminar flowText not available

  • laminate sails

  • Lamson, Charles H.   

    • "Octave Chanute's 1902 oscillating, multiwing wing glider built by Charles H. Lamson in Pasadena, Ca. With Chanute present, Augustus Herring tested this glider at Kill Devil Hills, October 5-14 1902. Note on reverse "Pasadena, Sept 8 - 1902. Source See triplane canard and tailed glider photo.      [Thanks to ARP for lead]


  • land

  • landing

  • landing hang gliders

  • landing operations

  • landing stand

  • landing zone, required landing zone    

  • landkite, land kite   Ozone Manual

  • landkiting

  • land use     per ________.

  • land-use model

  • Lang        David Lang

  • Lang's Challenge :: AWE running with little human attention for 700 hours.  Milestone yet to be reached by AWE.
    Lang's Challenge :: AWE running with little human attention for 700 hours. LC is a target yet to be reached. Send in what you know towards this target:
    The LC might be easier to achieve than one might first think. Consider a Tipping Boom system with short tether in a nearly no-wind site; the wind picks up a bit and the kite drives the generator. Let 700 hours pass and presto, the AWE system could be said to have been running. What say you?

  • LAPs      Low altitude platforms.       See distinct HAPs  for high altitude platforms.     Art1

  • lapse rate      wiki

  • LARA (Low Aspect Ratio Annular)    rescue parachute

  • larboard        left

  • larch      wiki/Larch

  • large annular diameter generators   M231

  • large kite

  • large kite launching system

  • large-scale electricity production

  • larks-head knot, yo-yo knot, larks head     Study
    Open end circle with two finger; go through and grab the stem; pull stem throuth the circle; hold the new double circle and the double circle encloses the knot of the other line. Cinch the double circle about the stem of the other line.   Video.

  • lasers in kiting systems and AWES         Discuss at: AWES6663

    • Beam power to wings.  Powerbeaming. power beaming.

    • Beam power from wings to ground receptors or airborne receptors

    • Beam power through optical cable or tethers

    • manufacturing sails using laser cutters


    • ?

  • lateral area distribution

  • lateral area distribution effect


  • lateral dynamic energy harvesting

  • lateral dynamic maneuvering   

  • lath, laths    sticks

  • lattice        See: airborne lattice

  • lattice gases           AirborneWindEnergy/message/8491

  • latticework  AWES7525

  • Lattice AWECS, latticeAWE, latticeAWECS, lattice-works AWE, lattice AWE,

  • laundry, kite laundry, kite laundry WECs, line WECs

  • launch kite system

    • blown launch

    • launch of a hang glider

    • launch of a power kite

    • launch of a commercial AWES

    • launch of a kite arch

    • launch of a kite train

    • Discuss at       message/7469
      Options for launching  groundgen AWES     
      1. Stepped towing by ground-based drivers
      2. Towing (moving servant, powered winch,  via mass dropping, via river drogue, etc.)
      3. Phased pumping or tugging
      4. AWES taxi
      5. Ambient wind, conventional launch
      6. LTA pilot lifter
      7. Low-wind kite lifter
      8. LTA total AWES
      9. Blowing fan to form artificial wing
      10. Railgun launcher
      11. Drop from powered aircraft or aerostat
      12. Slingshot
      13. Rocket the wing set
      14. Catapult
      15. Toss
      16. Rotating stem
      17. mass driver or electromagnetic catapult 
      18. Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (commonly EMALS)
      19.  launch-land demonstrations      Discuss: NTS promoting AWE railway as tow-launching means
      20. Snatch method:  AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/topics/12106   Powered flying aircraft snatches the kite line and kites the snatched wing into the air. This was used to snatch the glider wings in WWII.

    launching kite

  • launching ways

    • Structure that assist in the launching of a hang glider or aircraft or kite system

    • Methods of launching

    • launch off water into air       AWES7577

    • combinations of flight-and-submarine kite operations

    •  Use drones to start AWES. Use drones to start cascade of a train kite system or arch kite system, etc. 

    • v

    • v

    • v


  • LASS          low altitude surveillance system (LASS)

  • Lavezzari, Jan.     Three known versions, so far, of hang gliders; there may be more.     Wiki.   Main testing site:  sur Berck, France. Full history of all gliders at that site in the first decade of 1900s should be interesting, we suspect.   Examples "anachronistic Rogallo hang glider" to those who were inculcated in the Rogallo Revolution. 

  • LAWE, LAAWE     low-altitude airborne wind energy      or Low Airborne Wind Energy.  Accepting standard aviation culture, energy kite systems mostly are dealing with low-altitude solutions; the conventional altitudes that are "high altitude" are not yet being flown by AWECS R&D entities though on paper there is interest in high altitude jet stream as resource.

  • LBNL   Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory    |   wiki   | LBL Home  |   LBNLonWind  |

  • LCA   Life Cycle Assessment, life-cycle assessment, life cycle assessment,

  • LCOE       
    Levelized energy cost (LEC, also called Levelized Cost Of Energy or LCOE) is a cost of generating energy (usually electricity) for a particular ...

  • LE   leading edge of a wing           Wing's trailing edge:  TE

  • Lead-Acid

  • leading edge (LE)

  • leading-edge tape       Let the tape take the beating from birds, insects, particulates, sand, stones, gravel; then replace the tape occasionally.    Gliders, kites, turbine blades, AWES parts ...

  • leading-edge inflatable kite   wiki

  • leading edge inflated

  • Lead-Acid

  • lead kite, leader kite, pilot kite,         See also: lifter           In KAP.

  • Leaf kite, leaf kites, leafkite     Kites made with leaves. There are many ways to make kites with leaves of plants and trees.  Integral dried?  Dried while pressed in form?  Add epoxy when pressing?  Mulch and reform leaf material to make sticks to add to basic leaf? Etc. Ideas and examples are welcome. Distinguish between artificial leaf-mimic kites and kite's wings made of natural leaves.
    In one classification, leaves are kites when on there stems on their live plants.

  • leaflet kites  used to distribute leaflets.

  • leak

  • leash

    • "when in leash by a cord"    1916, Moreira, patent Kite

  • LED, LEDs,   light-emitting diodes,

  • LED battery

  • LED kite show, see also night kite flying

  • lee

  • lee side

  • leefoil

  • leeward   downwind     wiki

  • leg, legs       kite legs, tether legs          Legs help a kite's relaunch. Legs might help protect turbines upon landing.

  • LEI          leading edge inflated   

  • LEI tube kite

  • lemniscate

  • Leo Goldstein        Our folder.

  • LEP      Line Encyclopedia Project (LEP)

  • lever      wafting lever       ballasted lever   "wafting lever" This is to be distinguish from the  "tipping boom" (an upright crosswind "dipping boom" discussed in M109

  • level


  • Levelized cost of energy  LCOE

  • level wind mechanism

  • leverage

  • lever-and-crank system        M2876          GeneralLink

  • lever arm

  • lever AWECS  

  • levitation

  • levitating

  • levitating turbines

  • levitated turbines

  • levitecture      [2013 coinage by DB Murray, architect]]

  • Levopter       lifting bird.   Plural: levopters    

    • A very primitive levopter is a parakite, paraglider.

    • HDB WPA 12072906

    • FFAWE Club

    • Woglom in late 1800s published about free-flight dual-kite systems that traveled without fuel long distances.

    • Levopter, our main folder about the related company

  • LFE   latest failed experiment   (learning)

  • LGPL      "Lesser" General Public License         Study:

  • liana, lianas    lianas     Consider tethers in nature.


  • liberational kiting   such opposes death kiting

  • life-cycle costs

  • LIDAR         wiki        PDF2        GeneralLink

  • Li-FePo4 batteries


  • life-limit part

  • lifeSaveAWE         AWECS used in life-saving activities.

  • Lighter-than-air KitePower System (LTAKPS)    See also: aerostat KitePower System (AKPS)

  • Li-Io

  • Li-Po

  • lift          wiki  

  • Lift  :: an e-zine for World ParaGliding Association and World Hang Gliding Association.

  • Lift coefficient          CL    coefficient of lift,   wiki/Lift_coefficient

  • lift, artificial       Portable dune by Pere Casellas, artificial thermal makers, ground-modification for thermal triggering, kite-held artificial slopes etc.

  • lifter            support body

  • LifterKite       lifter, lifter kite       VerticalLiftByKiteSystems

    • "The Lifter Kite provides "passive control", the autonomous flight function, without avionics. Without the lifter the unstable sport kite would quickly crash."

    • "The largest kite in history, the biggest wing ever, was Osborne's parafoil "lifter" flown near Ilwaco here (Long Beach, Washington), just over 17,000 sq. ft., so the scaling potential of this approach is vast. (Such a lifter could easily loft a hot 5000 sq. ft. looping parafoil as its multi-megawatt power element.)"

    • v

    • v

  • lifter kite       VerticalLiftByKiteSystems   | Main collection of what to lift by kite systems

  • lifters

  • lifter technology  of the type that uses high voltage, electrogravitic effect.  There is a contemporary craze of making devices:

  • lifter tether, lifter's tether, lifter kite's tether

  • lifting kite    See also KiteCrane    VerticalLiftByKiteSystems   | Main collection of what to lift by kite systems

  • lift physics

  • lift power    and drag power

  • lift power extraction method         and drag power extraction method    For one use of these phrases: Tigner

  • lift power production     and drag power production

  • lift pressure 

  • light

  • light-emitting tether, light-emitting sail, radiant tether, luminescent tether

  • lighten       make less heavy

  • lightening    process of making less heavy     (distinguish from atmospheric electrical discharge of lightning)


  • lightsail      1Ref       Carl Willey   

  • lightsailing

  • light sailing

  • light sail    solar sail       photon sail    
    Tethering such sails can occur. Bi-sail coupling in space can occur. See also magsails.

  • light sails

  • lightcraft       Wiki  

  • light craft

  • lighter-than-air kytoon

  • lighter-than-air solid  LTAS

  • lighter-than-water, tethered, sea-current turbine generator

  • light kite

  • light kiting   
    Tether space kite to space bodies or to opposing space light kite. Micro light kite or large format light space kites. Applications conceived are several: communications, transport,  energy production, ...  Historical: 1924c Russian spaceflight pioneer Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii and his colleague, Friedrich Zander

  • light dynamic soaring

  • lightning

    • lightning arrestor

    • lightning damage

    • lightning mitigation

    • lightning risk

    • lightning safe

    • lightning safety circuit

    • lightning strike sustainability

    • "Lightning is only the final discharge of the static electricity, whether that lightning is intra-cloud lightning, cloud-to-ground lightning, or inter-cloud lightning. Other types of final discharges are known as heat lightning, summer lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, silent lightning, ball lightning, bead lightning, elves, jets, and sprites. Well before these discharges are observed, as the atmosphere becomes agitated by wind or thermal activity, static electricity is being generated. "   Source. by   Mark Ellery Ogram


  • Lilienthal        See "Otto Lilienthal"

  • limp

  • Todd Lind   [master mechanic from heavy machinery to bikes, with experience in wildland firefighting that he is applying to kite fire-fighting (& irrigation). He is daily advancing kite tech volunteering at KiteLab, Ilwaco, Washington]

  • Lindenberg Observatory in Prussia  and its kite history


  • line

    • manja

    • pipa  (Portuguese for kite)

    • de-tensioning  Our First upload!

    • pitch lines

    • steering lines

    • brake lines

    • kill lines

    • douse lines

    • anchor lines

    • loadpath lines

    • See and contribute to Line Encyclopedia (LEP)   with an eye on kite systems, AWES, kite energy,

  • linear alternator

  • linearAWE           versus  cyclicAWE

  • linear motion

  • line climber, line rider, line sailor, line slider, line sliding, line messengers,

  • line cutter

  • line-dig problem  when storing tensed line on a reel or winch drum or core.   Mitigation of this problem.

  • line drag

  • line droop, line sag

  • Line Encyclopedia Project (LEP),   Line Encyclopedia, a publication by Upper Windpower.
    Mission statement: LEP is to be a free Internet-based encyclopedia about lines for the purpose of increasing the safety and success of kiting activities.

  • line generator

    • electric generator from use of line dynamics

    • production of line

    • linear generator

  • line grabber     

    • Rod Read: "kite rocket line grabber"


  • line hazard avoidance

  • line junk

  • Line laundry

  • line lifter

  • LineLifter

  • line lifting arch

  • line mass

  • line oscillation

  • line over, line overs,

  • line payout meter

  • line loadpath network     or  rope loadpath network    (essence of ripstop textile; the net married to sail; the load is mainly taken by the net of cords, ropes, lines).   Domina Jalbert discovered for himself how less-massive sails could be by employing line loadpath methods.

  • line sag, line droop

  • line shuttle           LS11   

  • line splices           [[Do not trust factory line splices. Bob Moore]]   [[Consider splice-free line lots.]]

  • line stretch

  • line tension

  • line tension maintenance        

  • line torsion

  • line tree    (the up-going set of bridle lines holding a parafoil kite which secondarily may be used in free-flight paragliding, governable parachutes, energy-kites, etc. )     Use1

  • line unwinding

  • line unwinding phase, lines unwinding phase        This phase may be a power production phase or not, depending on the kite system or AWES

  • line wrapping

  • linkage

  • linkages

  • links

  • LiPo battey     Lithium polymer  | Lithium-ion polymer batteries, polymer lithium ion, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (abbreviated Li-poly, Li-Pol, LiPo, LIP, PLI or LiP)

  • liquid air  (LA)

    • liquid air economy (LAE)

    • Liquid Air Energy Network  (LAEN)

    • DSUTWP  is a group that is looking at LA as part of an untethered AWES system

    • Just what roles LA might play in energy kite systems is an open question as of 2013.


    • v

    • v

    • v

    • v

  • lithium receiver batteries

  • lithium transmitter batteries

  • Little Eagle™  by Joe Faust for high-speed hang gliding via busable hang glider; 2010.

  • Little Hawk™     by Bob Kuczewski in 2010 for a wide-public introduction to hang gliding via a small wing not meant for flight.  In January of 2012, Bob and JoeF hopped the Little Hawk at the precise site of the first public demo site of Icarus I by Taras Kiceniuk.


  • Lissajous patters, Lissajous figures.    Study

  • LLJ, LLJs             See low level jets      |   

    • German-Archer Jets:    LLJ, local maxima.    Wayne German and Cristina Archer.    LLJ wind maxima zone   AWES7422

    • v

    • v

  • LO      low-observable technology               wiki/Stealth_technology

  • LOA    length over all, distance from bow to stern, distance from most forward to most rearward       M2846

  • load

  • load center

  • load curtains

  • load damping  devices  (hydraulic damper, snubbing lines, drag reels, ...)

  • loadings

  • load limiter, line load limiter

  • localAWE

  • lock

  • lock and unlock

  • locked-up tips

  • lofted-base-station AWE 

  • loiter unloaded

  • Loomis                           Mahlon Loomis



    • AirborneWindEnergy/message/9386


    • "In spite of the fact that, due to glaring scientific flaws, there is no evidence that his idea could have ever worked, Loomis became obsessed with the vision that harnessing atmospheric electricity was destined to be one of the most revolutionary developments in the history of the world"

    • "They are all convertible elements. And this electrical essence will yet melt the icebergs in the seas of Thor, and vessels may ride in safety on their "Northern passage," the entire globe made more productive, all malaria cleared from the atmosphere and the entire climates of this our planet toned and tempered by it."

    • " And if this my plan which promises so much for the benefit of man is erroneous or unimportant then prick it as a bubble and expose its empty nothingness. But meantime I am firm in the faith that this immense belt, like the rings around our sister planet Saturn, will yet form the halo of greatness and intelligence about our heads. "


  • v
  • loop           zipline loop, pulley loop

  • loop frequency 

  • looping kite

  • looping kite's tethers

  • looping parafoil         LP      AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/messages/10924

  • looping wing

  • loop of kiteplanes      

  • LoopLadderMill          Schematic of LoopLadderMill by Harry Valentine

  • loop methods

  • loop tactics

  • LoopTether  or FanBelt (several arrangements: non-working downside Laddermill, PermaLiftedUpDownLoop (wings work up and wings work down to drive the loop without losses; the PermaLifter buoys past neutral to maintain loop tension; three and four pulley arrangements for separation can be explored), PermaLifterTwoLoop (upper working wing-saturated loop and moving lower loop tether), LiftedTorsionFanBelt, ...   Collaborative open-source projects here:   Send your sub-assembly solutions: or post in AirborneWindEnergy group

  • loss

    • losses

    • catenary loss

    • friction loss

    • material elastic loss

    • v

    • v

    • v

    • v

    • v

  • low altitude

  • low-altitude AWE     LAAWE

  • low altitude AWE acceptance

  • low-altitude kite energy concepts

  • low altitude platforms    LAPs   

  • low and slow
    •  Low & Slow was the first mid- 1900's for-profit magazine to serve that era's hang gliding renaissance. This took over the non-profit Low, Slow & Out of Control by way of contract between Richard Miller and Joe Faust.  Low & Slow became the organ for the international organization Self-Soar Association (S-SA).  At 36 issues, it was replaced with Hang Glder magazine as a weekly: Hang Glider Weekly.  The same publisher formed the first Hang Gldier Manufacturers Association (short lived) and published  a business weekly for such: Hang Glider Business Weekly. All totaled the publisher had 208 editions of hang glider materials. Later the publisher continued publiishing on the Internet. See  
    • Low, Slow & Out of Control  was a non-profit approx. 30-subscribered newsletter by Richard Miller within the fraternity of the Soaring Society of America dedicated to hang gliders and foot-launch sailplanes. Circa 1967


  • Loyd.     Miles Loyd.   Strong inventor: Patent: 

    Wind driven apparatus for power generation

     Miles L. Loyd

    Major article on cross-wind kiting.

  • Loyd's Limit       Art1PB 

  • Loy Hooded Kite   Ref1   John W. Loy     U.S. Patent  4,243,191
    Text not available

  • LP looping parafoil        kPower      A type of looping wing arrangement.

  • LSA

  • LTA    lighter-than-air            LTA/index.html

  • LTAKPS    Lighter-than-air KitePower System. 
    See also: aerostat KitePower System (AKPS)

  • LTAS   lighter-than-air solid

  • LTD     Lift to drag ratio.     L/D  

  • LTD   lighter-than-water

  • luff

    • wiki/Luff

    • " Luff:  when a kite's angle of attack becomes suddenly negative and the line(s) go loose."  PL, himself.


  • luffing


  • luff lines  

  • lull

  • lying eight


[ TOP ]