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Kite Energy Fundamentals and Applications

Table of Contents
Kite-Energy Glossary
aka: Airborne Wind Energy Textbook
[Disclaimer: Linking is not a recommendation, but merely is placed for study purposes.]
... being built since January 7, 2009.
Anyone is invited to help build an effective kite-energy glossary for all   Send to News@energykitesystems.net
Other glossaries of interest

  • 0-liner non-paraglider glider has no tethers to any bridling point; such gliders are not paragliders.
  • 0-liner paraglider has only tethers that act as wing shapers and wing-shape controllers; that is, 
    at the bridling point is placed the kite system's resistive set of elements. The bridle lines double role as
    kiting lines and wing-form keepers and wing-shape controllers when the wing is soft canopy rather than
    airframed.  Such gliding kite systems have a large sport paragliding presence.

  • 1-tether paraglider is a gliding kite system of one tether from bridle
    union point to resistive set.

  • 1-liner paraglider is a two-riser system; the "1" refers to level of line starts at the riser at the payload or resistive set.
    The many kite lines (playing up to three roles of wing shaper, wing-shape controller, and kiting).

  • 2-liner [A and B line sets]  "liner" respects pair sets (two on left and two on right)
  • 3D aerial latticework           AWES5079
  • 3-liner
  • 4-liner
  • 5-liner
  • 4T   Tall Train Tether Tower, Tall Tether Train Towers, Twin Tethered Train Towers
  • 1-riser
  • 2-riser
  • 3-riser
  • 4-riser
  • 5-riser
  • ===========================================  A :
  • AA  Airborne Architecture
  • A-frame in hang gliders: W. Simon   A-frame in hang gliding; triangle control frame in hang gliders.   Exhibited at meet in Breslau in 1908.
  • A2WE
  • AA-CAES       See CAES
  • AAL  above aerodrome level
  • ABBAS IBN FIRNAS      Some hold him as having built the first hang glider.   Article1   |   wiki   |   General  |
  • "ABC" (AWE Basket Cooperative)   Basket Investment Fund explained
  • ABL   atmospheric boundary layer.          Consider ABZ, atmospheric boundary zone
  • ABS anti-balancing system
    [[CAUTION: It is suspected that some write ABS when meaning BRS for ballistic recovery system]]
  • ABS plastic
  • ABZ, atmospheric boundary zone
  • AC
    • Alternating current
    • aerodynamic center        Note1  |   Wiki   |
  • acceleration        wiki
  • accelerometer     wiki
  • acceptance
  • AC/DC converter
  • ACE        airworthiness, (low) cost, effectiveness           ds, Dec. 2010.      ACE AWECS.
  • accident        Low-consequence kite accident.   High-consequence kite accident.  
    • accident avoidance   
    • See also ADM
  • acoustics
  • ACP
    • stands for "Ace Comp Pilot"...a tongue in cheek title that has been applied to the "comp scene" in hang-gliding. It's all in good fun!
    • ACP    airborne control pod        See also kite control unit

  • active air       Air that has robust helicities occurring. Thermic conditions, obstacles, industry, vehicles, machines, other aircraft, birds, trees, wind turbines, kites, ground formations,  buildings, combinations of things,  etc. are among some of the sources resulting in helicities that sum to active air. Active air is a normal characteristic of the atmosphere. Natural creatures have evolved to survive unique levels of strength of active air and to avoid the levels that exceed that strength. Humans, relatively new to flight, continue to struggle to recognize what levels of strength not to exceed with their various flying devices.
    • Helicity
      A property of a moving fluid which represents the potential for helical flow (i.e. flow which follows the pattern of a corkscrew) to evolve. Helicity is proportional to the strength of the flow, the amount of vertical wind shear, and the amount of turning in the flow (i.e. vorticity). Atmospheric helicity is computed from the vertical wind profile in the lower part of the atmosphere (usually from the surface up to 3 km), and is measured relative to storm motion. Higher values of helicity (generally, around 150 m2/s2 or more) favor the development of mid-level rotation (i.e. mesocyclones). Extreme values can exceed 600 m2/s2.

  • active control
  • active control algorithm
  • active collection area
  • active controls
  • active flight automation (robotic UAV tech)
  • active handling
  • active piloting
  • active tails
  • Active-Tether AWECS          See also types of active tethers. See Dave Santos wing-mill which is an active-tether AWECS element type.  
  • actuation bandwidth
  • actuation saturation        AWE4461
  • actuation unit
    • v
    • v
  • actuator, actuators
  • actuator-bandwidth
  • actuator-bandwidth limitations        M2849
  • ACWT alternating current wind turbine
  • AD    airworthiness directive
  • adaptive controller
  • adaptive kite control
  • adaptive neural network controller
  • Adeoye John Oyebanji, first pro-tem president of world's AWEIA international.   Most found order: John Adeoye  Oyebanji 
  • adiabatic lapse rate
  • adjusting line

  • ADS-B     Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast
  • advanced metering infrastructure    AMI 
  • Advance Micro Kite       Kite test 2
  • advertising    Kite advertising.     AWECS advertising. 
    Advertising in the AWE world has many sectors and aspects.
    • The shape of a wing may express message itself that could forward an entity's purposes.
    • The symbols or text on a lifted wing could forward someone's aims.
    • Shape and message on tether hazard warning flags/socks could hold advertising.
    • The ground station of an AWECS could hold advertising messages.
    • Stakeholders in AWE community may advertising their services and products in EnergyKiteSystems.net for a reasonable fee.
    • Kites may be used as they have been for centuries to carry messages seen in the sky as well as drop leaflets. Some dropped leaflets may be in good aspect ratio  rectangular format to give significant rotary Savonius flight for visual impact and spread effect.
    • Advertising in AWECS may be self-serving or serving of the needs of third parties.

  • aeolian generating system
  • aeolian generator, trospospheric aeolian generator          That is,  kite systems with a focus on generating special forms of energy for use in practical loads.
  • aeolian harps
  • aeolian parks         Term used in patent applicaition.
  • aeolian technology
  • aeolic tower
  • aeolists
  • aeolic      wiki     See also eolic.
  • aeolic energy         General1
  • Aeolus         wiki/Aeolus   |     AirborneWindEnergy/message/9863    
  • aerial
  • aerial robot
  • aerial robotics
  • aerial robotics competitions        http://iarc.angel-strike.com/index.php

  • aerobus                 
    • Aerobus, company.
    • Polygonal cableway as turret for AWES complex
    • Corner stress-smoothing segments
    • wiki/Aerial_cableway
    • aerial tramway
    • An AWES aerial polygonal turret might double as transportation system for a region
    • v
    • v
  • aero flooring      
    • Early artists depicted aerial habitation aerial floors.
    • Buckminster Fuller
    • Constructing surfaces in the sky by aviation tactics produces activity flooring.
    • Tomas Saraceno
    • Doming where the AWES dome become a "second floor" for operating new attachments
    • Dave Santos
    • Nets set in the sky for secondary operations
    • Joe Faust array construction of second floor with downwind arches mix with cross wind arches or omni-directioned kite arches
    • AWES systems may feature "second floors" kept aloft even in wind calms
    • tethered aviation aero flooring may be a foundation for mega-scale energy production, habitation, earth-surface trauma escape, earth-surface environment protection,
    • Floors inside of powered aircraft
    • Tension shelving or floors held by tension means
    • Habitats in the sky held by aerostats, kites, dynamic wings, tethering from above
    • http://www.cloud9living.com:8080/images/products/DinnerInTheSky.jpg  Crane-hung floors
    • http://www.net-sys.com/catamaran-netting.php
    • From aero floors: drop net curtains for various purposes: huge net cages to hold insects, birds, test aircraft, enemy aircraft, flying fluff, explosive debris, etc.
    • aerial mall on raised flown floors
    • lookout bridge
    • v
  • Aeroix                        aeroix.de    
  • AEPnet = annual energy performance
  • aerial
  • aerial application industry, aerial application pilot.    Consider kite systems working to do aerial application.         Aerial application pilots may affected by the presence of AWES.  See concern by National Agricultural Aviation Association (NAAA) in comment to FAA in Feb. 2012.
  • aerial load
  • AEP  annual energy production     SWIIS
  • aerial
  • aerial aqueducts  
  • Aerial assembly of kite arrays is ___________________________
  • Aerial Experiment Association  (AEA)    
    • wiki
    • Formed on 30 September 1907
    • The AEA organisation disbanded on 31 March 1909.
  • aërial flight                         Walker, 1903.
  • aerial latticework, 3D aerial latticework,
  • aerial logging    Ref1      Log by helicopter, skywire, balloon, kytoon, aerostats,   Ref1    Ref2
  • aerial mill
  • aerial noise-maker
  • aerial rules       See airspace regulations.
  • aerial power generation technology,
    • Benjamin Tigner,
    • US Pat. 7188808  Gaylord G. Olson    "aeriawind power generation"  using a "support body"
    • v
    • v
    • v
  • aerial sled
  • aerial trip
  • aerial wind power generation
  • Aerial Wind Turbine         PaperWPI
  • aërial  yacht      is another term for a kite system 
  • aerie    Nest of eagle. Nest for a downed AWES.         
  • aerobat        Use in hang glider patent filed in 1879 by Greenough. Two sailed wings, keel, cable-stayed wings, parasol, poisers,
  • Aerobie®   
  • AeroCam
  • aerochute           Patent1   parachute glider
  • aerocurve, aërocurve
  • aerodrome     has various meanings     "air-runner" ...note in 1897 of The Aeronautical Journal; the machine runs faster on the surface of the air than horses run.
        Also: http://tinyurl.com/someAerodrome
  • aerodrome, aerodromes
  • Langley deliberately chose "aerodrome" to mean the flying machines that he was powering; his choice of term is thought to have some disadvantages, as the Greek meaning of "aerodrome" more properly would mean the place where flying machine occur; indeed such place use of the term occurred for what would even later become known as airports.  Be ready to search "aerodrome" to find Langley's flying machine series; also, be ready to see historical use of the term for meaning the place where aircraft conduct take offs and landings.  For disambiguation among other uses: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodrome_(disambiguation)
  • aerodynamically shaped balloon        
  • aerodynamic force   wiki       aerodynamics  
  • aerodynamic interference
  • aero-dynamics, aerodynamics
  • aëro-dynamics     
    This is Woglom's spelling in his book Parakites. 1896. Full book is freely available online.
  • aerodynamics

  • aeroelastic flutter
  • aeroelasticity
  • aerofabríx® is being used in a kite.  Ref1
  • AeroFlyer   (related to Air Force Flight Dynamics)  Report: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a056569.pdf  (bak)  Flight test results of a powered parafoil system (Aeroflyer). TR AFFDL-TR-76-15 Final Reoprt for period September 1973-December 1975  Author: John D. Nicolaides of A-E-R-O.
    [ Dr. John D. Nicolaides, Chairman of the. Aero-Space Engineering Department, University of Notre Dame. Out of print: Parafoil flight performance. Book.   Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, 1972 - 101 pages.
    Parafoil Wind Tunnel Tests. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, 1971 - 368 pages.
    Para-Foil Design: ND 1.5  University of Notre Dame, 1966 - 6 pages.
    N3029 was one of the trikes for the parafoil experiments.
    •  http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=AD0731143 Parafoil Flight Performance  ]

      [[ED: Note that items were often "classified" and then later declassified for public distribution. The period of time and work under the "classified" sector may be studied for historical purposes. ]]
  • aerofoil       see main airfoil
  • aerofoil upright            The triangle control frame's two legs are sometimes called uprights, downtubes, queenposts, legs. compression rigging tube.   When that beam is with a streamlined shaped cross section, then some refer to the beam as an "aerofoil upright" or "aerofoiled upright" or the terms use "airfoil" or "airfoiled" for the spelling.
  • aerogenerating tower

    • aerogenerator     GeneralLink 
    • aerogenerator on communication aerostats      SeeLead      
      1975, July: Manalis, M.S., “Airborne Windmills: Energy Source for Communication Aerostats,” AIAA Lighter Than Air Technology Conference, AIAA Paper 75-923, July 1975.




  • aeroelastic
  • aeroelastic detailing
  • aeroelasticity
  • aeroelastic tuning            GenLink  
  • Aeroflexor                 Flexor Energy Company
  • aero-generator
  • aerograph
  • aerographer
  • aerographic charts
  • Aerographite    http://tinyurl.com/Aerographite    | AWES6668  | 
  • aerography
  • aero-inertial dampener network    M274

  • aerofabríx® is a brand of
    Dr.-Ing. Alexander Bormann,
    Berlin, Germany.  
    Several types:
    • AL  Ultra-light high performance fabric for use in aerosports
    • ISO Efficient thermal insulation for the use in aerospace and tensile architecture.
    • Barriere   Ultra light, helium tight envelope material with excellent weldability.

  • aerogel     wiki   Notice that there are aerogels based on other than silica.   And consider also vacugel   and also a futurism of 3-D nano matrices of super-low density, perhaps even lighter-than-air formats without enclosing light-than-air gases ... Consider nanofoam and evacuated versions of aerogels, etc.   Dream of solid kite wings that are lighter-than-air that do not use lighter-than-air gases ... Some dreaming.  
  • aerogenerator
  • aerohydrofoil       Defined by Bernard Smith in 1963 in book on page 3, The 40-Knot Sailboat.
  • aero-inertial
  • AeroKite         Aero Kite   Aerokite     One instance is a Savonius winged airplane-mimic kite; the kite converts some of the wind's energy to sound, lift, and drag. The sound in a toy version enhances the mimic of powered-aircraft sounds. http://www.aerokite.ca/   Aerokite™ Toy Company   Perhaps micro generator charging tiny ultracap that releases occasional pulse to light a LED for sparky evening flight?
  • Aerology Lab
  • AeroKite is a term being used in a forum KiteGen in a thread of messages that wrestles with the two-kite free-flight new aviation systems where no tether reaches the ground. Some concepts mine energy during the dynamic soaring. See FFAWE.
  • Aeronautical Annual, The Aeronautical Annual, annuals     ? The Aeronautical Annual.  
  • aeronautics
  • aeronautics on a string        (kite energy, AWE, AWES)
  • aeronef        wiki
  • aeronomy              wiki/Aeronomy
  • Aeropleustic Art     Book: The Aeropleustic Art or Navigation in the Air by the use of Kites, or Buoyant Sails  by George Pocock.    Kite-powered chariots.   Article1   
  • aeroport        Rufus Porter, mid 1800s, with intent for dirigible launching site
  • Aeroscraft     by Aeros Corporation  | Igor Pasternak  | buoyancy management system  | at first helium, but eyes on hydrogen |
  • aerospace        wiki: Aerospace
  • aerostat
  • aerostat-based AWE 
  • aerostat-based generator
  • aerostat kite power system, Aerostat KitePower System, AKPS
  • Aerostat-Mounted Wind Turbine (AMWT) 
  • aerostat sites
  • Aerostat wind turbine     AWT         Lynn Potter                              
          [See also tethered aerostat wind turbine  TAWT for a double use of Tethered Airborne Wind Turbine   and  sometimes Tethered Aerostat Wind Turbine.   See also Airborne tethered wind turbines  ATWT   Also, AWT for Airborne Wind Turbine where a turbine might be on a powered aircraft or on a free-flight glider or sailplane or on a kite system. ]
  • Aérostiers, Aerostiers    =operators of earlier French balloons, late 1700s. 
  • aerotecture      See main folder: Aerotecture

  • aerotensegrity   AirborneWindEnergy/conversations/messages/11875
  • aerotow AWECS launch method  

  • aerotow bridles

  • aero turbines, aeroturbine, aeroturbine blades
  • aerovane
  • aerovoltaic                 DESROCHERS, GAETAN    ;  Gaetan Desrochers
    Canadian patent

    CA2428578 A1 - 2004-11-08        
    Filed date: 2003-05-08   
    Open to public inspection: 2004-11-08

    Patent Application: (11) CA 2428578
    English Title: AEROVOLTAIC MODULE           aerovoltaic module

    SEE ALSO: air voltaic currents, air-voltaic current,  [Year 1897, used in mining-of-gold literature], air voltaic circles    
          Also see in year 1891 in primary batteries for air voltaic  batteries.    Book: Primary Batteries by Henry S. Carhart, A.M., professor of physics in the University of Michigan.  Page 23: "The relation of the air voltaic battery to the liquid voltaic battery may be illustrated in a different way."

  • A-frame
    • for kites
    • for powered aircraft
    • for flight simulators
    • A-frame and U-frame and Parallel-frame.   Infinite zenithal A-frame.  Infinite Apex-al A-frame (Steve Seibel).   Practically it is almost impossible for have two beams parallel; microscopically teh two beams will vibrate to be skewed in space.  When two side beams are joined to a base beam's ends, and then joined at a apex of a triangle, then we have a firm A-frame. Else, if the two up-going beams are not joined directly, then they are likely to be skewed in space and almost never be parallel, but momentarily.  But assuming the side tubes are fixed on the same plane, then if one attempts to have the beams parallel on that plane, then the two tubes will rise to form a U or rise to form at a point of infinity an apex to the triangle; hence Steve Seibel of Aeroexperiments spawned the term "infinite apex-al A-frame.   Faust had the term "infinite zenithal A-frame" from visualizing the zenith as the meeting point of two parallels; the zenith point would be the apex.   In real builds of biplane hang gliders, sometimes the builder has two symmetrical up-going beams from the lower-wings's spar; those two beams might deliberately be slanted toward each other or set as parallel as the designer could make them, perhaps specifying that the beams be parallel.  But in material fact, even if the specifications call for parallel, the two beams will almost all the time live their lives non-parallel while going into skew configuration; again if one then assumes same plane, then also assume fixed position, then the zenith point may be considered as the apex of the A-frame, or the top of the "A" of the craft.
    • for for hang gliders to a flexible wing hang glider with pilot hung from keel behind the A-frame or cable-stayed control bar was exampled in a gliding club in 1908 in the territory of Breslau. Photograph of the demonstration is in Stephan Nitsch collection.  That and the Flight magazine of 1910 feature on the control system involved with the triangle control frame formed part of the inspiration for others to use the system; indeed the basic TCF was involved in one way or another in almost all aircraft as it morphed in various ways as an undercarriage, holder of engines and motors, springs, skids, etc.  Igor Bensen used the hung pilot behind a small triangle control frame or A-frame in his early 1950s kite-glider. Later users in the 1960s included Barry Hill Palmer, Mike Burns, and then John Dickenson and others. Thanks to the pioneers pre-1911, including Beeson, Pilcher, Wenham and others who gave the foundations for the A-frame control system most simplified by the Breslau 1908 exampling.
    • 1905  patent filing by Gustave Whitehead had control frame with infinite zenithal A-frame in front of the pilot in flexible-wing hang glider.
    • In 1908 in Breslau in gliding club meet, a battened flexible wing footlaunch hang glider featured the A-frame cable-stayed with pilot hung from keel, one of the many early uses of what is so common today in ultralights and hang gliders.
    • In 1910 in the classic book on model airplanes had many examples of the use of the A-frame for landing skis and wheels, even cable-stayed beneath parasol wings.  image of page 71

      The boys' book of model aeroplanes; how to build and fly them:
      with the story of the evolution of the flying machine
      , by Francis A. Collins;
      illustrated with many photographs and diagrams by the author.

      Main Author: Collins, Francis Arnold, 1873- English New York : The Century co., 1910.
      Airplanes > Models. ix, 308 p. front. illus., plates. 20 cm. Book TL770 .C6 1910
      Find in a library       Full view

    • http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t8x922w54

      The Second Boy's Book of Model Aeroplanes (1911), 262 pages
      Searching for ebook yet, will post here when found: 
      One free ebook source for this second book: HERE

      Discuss any point that you see as interfacing with hang gliders?

      ===========Some basic author data:
      Collins, Francis A. (Francis Arnold) 1873-1957
  • Aggregate Flight Stability- The effect of increased flight stability exhibited by linked arrays of less stable AWECS sub-elements.
  • aggregate stability      Consider the stability potential in kite trains, kite arches, kite coteries, kite trees, and kite meshes. spider-mills, laddermills, arch farms,                 Also, consider how trees (as natural kites) show a use of aggregates for stability and success.  M2873                Record Fighter Kites      
  • agile engineering                   ds
  • agriAWE, agriculturalAWE,
  • AHRS  attitude heading reference system  [TU Delft, 2010)]
  • aileron
  • A-I-R       http://www.a-i-r.de/        | History   |
         Aeronautique Innovation Ruhle Gmbh
     (AIR), German manufacturer: 
  • air                        AirCarAccess         Emergency air.    Underwater air.
  • air anchor, air-anchor set      Several species here:
    • An elemental kite is sometimes seen as an air anchor for what is occurring at the other end of the tether.
    • A soil anchor or water anchor to a kite system may be made using a air-filled balloon to give volume and bite.  Thus air-filled anchor or air anchor.
    • In a FF-AWE system each tether-terminal wing set is a relative air anchor to the other opposing tether-terminal wing set.
    • v
  • airbarge, airbarge       Patrick D. Kelley used term in a kite an application for a patent. BUOYANT AIRBARGE AND SPINNAKER SAIL COMBINATIONS FOR GENERATING ELECTRIC POWER FROM WIND
  • airbeam
  • airbeams
  • Airbine     
  • airborne
  • airborne architecture, AWE Architecture
  • airborne array     AWES752
  • airborne control pod    ACP            See also kite control unit   KCU
  • airborne conveyor system           Art1  
  • airborne electricity generator
  • Airborne Forces Experimental Establishment
  • airborne kite
  • airborne kite-based technologies        Art1
  • airborne kite control        Control a kite system passively or actively by devices lofted. Control may be smart and automatic in response to sensors.  Control might be by expert programs in a ground-based command center, perhaps manned. Control might be by a person also lofted with or without additional device; that is, perhaps the human is the airborne kite control like in gliding kites (paragliders). The lofted human might have additional devices and information input to be part of the control system.
  • airborne kite control unit


airborne lattice              airborne latticework   
"Airborne lattice-work based on classic kiting seems to me to be the fundamental early enabler of dense AWE arrays. Fancy kiteplanes will not easily crash if held aloft in a lattice. Such latticework can be based overhead in common valleys & evolve in any direction to host any harvesting element. KiteLab's biz plan is to use the crash pattern of the "leaders" to attract attention and investment to preventative concepts."  Dave Santos Nov. 9, 2010

Take a 2 MW single-tether kiteplane (like Joby's model) operating under a 2000 ft ceiling. To keep safely clear of neighbors it occupies a circular plot near a mile across. Presume a 3x3 array of nine kiteplanes for 18 MW from a 3 mile square kitefarm. The same land developed with conventional 5 MW HAWTs, spaced normally, could develop greater than 100 MW, presuming that better wind capacity-factor aloft roughly offsets the lowered system availability of complex delicate aircraft. Conventional HAWTs win overwhelmingly in raw land efficiency without even touching the upper-wind. However, the same land and airspace that the nine kiteplanes sparsely occupy can be densely packed with airborne turbines or wingmills, in string latticework based on classic kite methods, for over a rated gigawatt. AWE arrays of cross-linked semi-captive elements seem to have a fantastic advantage in space-efficiency, not just safety and control, over single-tether designs.

I used crude geometric methods to estimate these figures, so it will be fun to see how well someone else's calculations coincide. A suggestive guesstimate is that there is well over a gigawatt average in a tiny mid-lat crosswind patch of sky, just 100m across & 10km high.
  Dave Santos, Nov. 10, 2010

  • airborne power generation industry (APGI)     
    kite-energy industry (KEI)

  • Airborne Seaborne Wind Energy System (ASWES)


  • airborne turbine   AT     There are a great variety of turbines that operate up in the air.  RATs are part of the variety. Turbines lifted by kites or balloons or kytoons are also airborne. 
  • airborne wind-based power generation system   AWBPGS
  • Airborne Wind Energy (AWE)    Airborne Wind Energy
  • Airborne Wind Energy books
  • Airborne Wind Energy    ... hub for earth's AWE.
  • airborne wind energy harvesting  AWEH
  • Airborne Wind Energy Conference 2010  http://www.awec2010.com/  sponsored by Airborne Wind Energy Consortium and NASA.
  • Airborne Wind Energy Consortium     The USA-focused 2010 result from Joby Energy, Makani Power, Magenn Power, and Sky Windpower.       
    For international consortium of AWECS business: see KiteLab Group which has been the first business consortium.
  • Airborne Wind Energy Industry Association  AWEIA   international, all-AWE scales, all nations, non-military, first-in-service for transnational AWE services.
  • Airborne wind energy conversion systems  AWECS
  • Airborne Wind Energy Research
  • airborne wind energy research community         AWERC
    airborne wind energy research and development community         AWE R&D Community
  • airborne wind energy systems (AWES)
  • airborne wind energy technology        The phrase adopted for communicating the sector of renewable and sustainable green energy using tethered and free-flight devices to convert the kinetic energy of the wind to useful works.
  • airborne technology
  • airborne tensioned tethers
  • airborne wind-capture devices, airborne wind-capturing systems, airborne wind-capturing platforms, airborne wind-capturing technology
  • airborne wind energy   AWE   AirborneWindEnergy
    Airborne Wind (Kite) Energy      is a phrase used occasionally. 
  • Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) Portal
  • Airborne Wind Energy Circle 
  • airborne wind energy innovation  
    or Airborne Wind Energy Network  (AWEN)
  • AirborneWind (Kite) Energy, Airborne Wind (Kite) Energy, Airborne Wind Kite Energy, Airborne Wind Kite Energy Applications, Rice-Farm Airborne Wind (Kite) Energy Application ‘proofs’.  Airborne Wind (Kite) Energy Agricultural applications
  • Airborne Wind Energy Industry Association       AWEIA
  • airborne wind energy conversion system  AWECS
  • Airborne Wind Energy System Technologies
  • airborne windmills      GeneralLink
  • airborne wind power       See:  AWE   and AWECS
  • airborne wind profiles
  • airborne wind solutions
  • airborne wind startup           A young AWECS company.
  • airborne wind turbine   airborne wind turbine    AWT       
  • air compressing via AWECS
  • Aircraft Bolts and Grip       article22
  • aircraft  
  • aircraft cable
  • aircrew                 See also groundcrew     and crew
  • Air energy transfer  (see Alexander Bolonkin paper of 2003. High Efficiency Transfer of Mechanical Energy, Alexander Bolonkin.    Using cables lofted in the air to transfer mechanical energy; the use of control wings (kite systems) for the systems is involved.
  • Airdolphin (TM)
  • air engine
  • airfoil
  • airfoil-based solution
  • airfoil kite wing
  • airfoil panel, air-foil panel,
  • airfoil surfaces
    • top surface receives air flow after the separation point  on top of the airfoil
    • bottom surface receives air flow after the separation point on the bottom of the airfoil
    • The 2011 September OZONE XXLite PG offer is probably not a true single-surface wing. Air flow aft of the stream stagnation point or separation point goes to top surface of an airfoil and to the bottom surface of the airfoil. In the video there is clear partial bottom surface material aft of the air flow separation point. This offer of OZONE is using an airfoil format that has a top surface and some bottom surface material. A true single-surface wing has not thickness except for one thickness of sheet used exactly for just one of the two, pick your choice top or bottom, but not both. The Rogallo Wing parawing is single-surface; the gliding PlaySail is single surface; the Allison kite-glider is a single surface; but the offer of subject and the OutLeader™ (though of a single fabric) are not airfoils of single surface, as they have a shaping that brings on material below the stagnation point forming airfoil surface, that is, the bottom surface of the airfoil, even if the % of full chord is small, but substantial. Differently, look to some true single-surface PGs when applying the term "single-surface" SSPG.  ~JoeF     Sept. 19, 2011.  AWE4237
  • airframe electrification
  • air-gen, air gen,    sky-gen, sky gen
  • airisms        
    • Early Flight magazine had a column with the word in it: Airisms From the Four Winds
  • airKite, air kite, kite.                  See for water foils:   hydrofoil, waterKite, hapa, paravane.
  • airless structures
  • Airmat         |  Mention1 |
  • air motor
  • airfoil morphing
  • airport        See also kiteport.
  • air pressure
  • air rotor system          E.g.:  Magenn Power Air Rotor System (M.A.R.S)
  • Air Rotor System      Magenn Power Air Rotor System (M.A.R.S), M.A.R.S.
  • airship
  • air skimmer
  • air skimming


  • air speed        airspeed      wiki     In Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the meter had the two-word version "Air Speed".  For measurement of airspeed, see anemometry and anemometers.
  • airstyle       http://www.kiteforum.com/viewforum.php?f=174
  • Air-supported wind energy, like tower-supported wind energy    AWES6082
  • air traffic
  • air traffic controllers
  • Air traffic control radar beacon system       ATCRBS
  • air traffic corridors
  • Airtricity         One type of airtricity is kitricity. Another type of airtricity is electricity obtained from ground-hugging wind turbines. Another comes form atmospheric electricity mined in several ways.    Kite energy systems that produce electricity (kitricity) are kitricity production systems.
  • air voltaic currents, air-voltaic current,  [Year 1897, used in mining-of-gold literature], air voltaic circles    
           Also see in year 1891 in primary batteries for air voltaic  batteries.    Book: Primary Batteries by Henry S. Carhart, A.M., professor of physics in the University of Michigan.  Page 23: "The relation of the air voltaic battery to the liquid voltaic battery may be illustrated in a different way."
  • airwheel
  • airworthiness of a a kite system
  • Alcyone    Patent n° US 4630997        wiki
  • algorithm                 algorithms
  • AKP          
    Airborne Wind Energy Knowledge Project (AKP) is proposed as a working name.  Nov. 28, 2011.    See: 
  • AKPS   aerostat KitePower system    See also
  • albedo
  • A lines      video1
  • All China Kite Association
  • Allifex kite        Art1 
  • Allison sled      Ref1              Ref3       Ref1   William M. Allison   
  • all-up weight
    • v
    • v
    • v
  • ALPA   ALPA is the largest non-governmental aviation safety organization in the world. The Association's founders chose "Schedule with Safety" as their motto in 1931, and that theme remains central to the union's work today.
  • alternating current
  • alternating current wind turbine  ACWT
  • alternative energy
  • alternator       wiki        Study: Article
  • alterno-motors
  • altimeter
  • altitude
  • altitude wind energy          Distinguish between wind-energy conversion systems that are towered at high altitude site from tethered for free-flight wind energy systems that have working parts flying at high altitude in upper wind for upper windpower. Wind energy captured by kite systems (including LTA kites) and put to task are occasionally referred to as altitude wind energy systems or AWES.   The tethered systems with wings are airborne wind energy systems or AWES.
  • altitude sweet spot   for an AWE working system.             More: working file

    Surface Layer- A turbulent wind zone typically extending 50-75 ft above ground surface.

    Visibility Ceiling- The altitude at which clouds or fog begin to hide a kite.

    Control-Line Ceiling- The line length/altitude at which control becomes excessively sluggish.

    Flight Ceiling- Maximum altitude allowable by regulations or conditions.

    Preferred Altitude- The best flight altitude given conditions (Altitude Sweet Spot).


  • altitude wind   is the resource for AWECS     
  • Altitude's wind energy: AWE
  • Altitude Wind Energy Association    (BHWE)  Bundesverband Höhenwindenergie e.V.      awec2013.de/bhwe/index.htm
    BHWE Bundesverband Hoehenwindenergie e.V. i.G.(German Airborne Wind Energy Association)


  • Altitude wind energy   AWE   ... the resource being mined by kites
  • Altitude wind generation
  • Altius, Altius Wind Energy
  • alu-cloth        alucloth      (rare use)
  • alula        wiki
  • Alula Energy, the company.      OurFolder
  • aluminized fabrics, aluminized textiles      Gentex
  • aluminum
  • Alfvén wave    wiki
  • Amateur Yacht Research Society
  • American wind energy industry
  • American Sportsman's Keel Kite     Ref1     Harry Sauls
  • American Wind Power Center and Museum in Lubbock, Texas.  
    The center in August, 2012 has agreed to begin collecting AWES.
    • Visited in August 2012 by the traveling Mothra1 team supported in part by Util, LLC.
    • AWES6801
  • Amick                           Douglas J. Amick  
    Provisional Patent Application of
    Douglas J. Amick
  • ammeter


  • amp      electrical unit abbreviation for ampere/  The ampere (SI unit symbol: A), often shortened to amp.       wiki
  • Ampyx Power    
  • amphibious kiting
  • amphi-kiting
  • amplifier     M231
  • amplitude
  • AmSteel®
  • AMWT     Aerostat-Mounted Wind Turbine (AMWT)
  • anchor, anchors,      
    • Note: Kite systems anchors come in great variety. Essentially a kite has a "resistive sector" (anchor) that can be fixed  or moving to various reference frames.  The resistive sector could be a hand of a human, a tree, a moving vehicle, a parachute, a kite, a rocket, a raft floating in a river, a fuzzy tether that develops tether drag in a different strata of air or perhaps water or moving lava, etc.  The resistive aspect permit the tether set to bridle the other end of the tether set where a wing or set of wings react with streams of fluid or matter or plasma to fulfill the kiting principle.
    • See also:
    • Many AWES may use deep-set low-mass soil anchors without need for concrete.

    • anchors may be moving objects, moving vehicles, moving asteroids, moving earth, moving hand, moving person, rock, tree, building, etc.   If an object is playing the role of an anchor or resistive set in a kite system, then such object is an anchor for that kite system.  Very common anchor is the hand of a standing person; but notice that the hand moves, the person moves, and the soil upon which the person may be standing moves relative to the ambient wind.  An anchor in a kite system might be another wing that resists by the kiting principle relative to the first wing set of the kite system. At times, some authors refer to the anchors as the "feet" of a kite system (ref2)

    • stockless anchor

    • para anchoring

    • tether patents

    • Line Encyclopedia

    • hobble, hopple


  • anchor fields
  • anchor harness
  • anchoring
  • Andreau "depression" system
  • anemometer       wiki            Define
    • Omega
    • James Hobbs, PhD thesis
    • M3375  
    • Easy anemometer
    • Analysis of a kite anemometer by Huang, K. H.; Shieh, C. F.; Frost, W.; abstract only linked.
    • Evaluation of a Tethered Kite Anemometer Kunkel, K.E., 1981: Evaluation of a Tethered Kite Anemometer. U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory Report AFL-TR-0076.
    • http://www.eagletreesystems.com/standalone/standalone.htm  
      [Disclaimer: Linking is not a recommendation, but merely is placed for study purposes.]
    • v

    • Rough study note:
      Kite (wing set, tether set, resistive source set)

      Kite as anemometer

      Studies, notes, papers towards robust view of "kite as anemometer" could follow in this topic thread.  

      Realtime strong view of wind speed and direction at all altitudes from wing altitude to mooring regardless of length and inclination of tether segments might provide data for AWECS farm management.


      One rough concept: Sensors along the tether know their referenced position in space and local wind speed; the data is reported and analyzed to give robust wind speed profile.  A family of smart anemometer tethers could report windfield conditions.     This goes differently from the Squid Labs "smart ropes" that address the condition of ropes; rather, attention is over the reporting o the wind speed  at specific positions in the airspace; report would not be simply wind speed at tether station, but at altitude over a particular ground point, and for many points.    Data might be sent via RF with fine filtering for separated frequencies or with encrypted stationing in one frequency with separation by timed position in serial reporting; this would preclude electrically conductive tethers.       April 15, 2011, by JpF.  tethersonde
      Additional note: Branched kites with branched tensions; tensions of each branch reported?  


  • anemometry
  • anemos, Greek for wind
  • angle
    • angle-based framing
    • angle-based box kite
    • angle-based hang glider

  • angle data
  • angle of attack       Change AoA during kite energy generation.
  • angle-of-attack-change mechanism
  • angle of incidence
  • angular kinetic energy or rotational energy 
  •  angular velocity    



(roll, pitch, yaw)=

w = {P, Q, R} = components of angular velocity
wx = P, wy = Q, wz = R. 


Coordinates and rotation sets P,Q,R = roll, pitch, and yaw angular velocities  [
s−1], with the agreement that (x,y,z) = (roll axis, pitch axis, yaw axis)=(tail to nose fuselage axis, center to right wing tip axis, center to down normal to roll and pitch axes) under right hand directioning.  Note: Avoid being confused by geometric lettering. Convention has it:  P for the roll.  Q for the pitch. R for the yaw.

r,θ,φ = radial distance, polar angle, and azimuthal angle [rad]
x,y,z = Cartesian coordinates [m]
φ,θ,ψ = roll, pitch, yaw angles [rad]


  • Anisotropy         wiki     directionally dependent.   See differently: isotropy
    • In kite energy:  wings face apparent wind (anisotropic), or wings can be radially symmetrical (isotropic)
    • vast isotropic arrays working multiple tethers
    • anisotropic kite
  • anonymous operation  [not to be confused with autonomous operation]
  • anomaly 
  • AMI  advanced metering infrastructure
  • annulus
  • annular wings                       Some images.
  • anomaly         wiki
  • antenna kites          Marconi  
  • antenna-lifting kites          Loeve
  • anticlockwise     counterclockwise   anti-clockwise
  • AOE = annual operating expenses
  • AoA     AOA     angle of attack
  • AoA AWE Oscillator
  • angle of attack change mechanism
  • APGS  airborne power generation system
  • application
  • applications of kite systems
  • application platform        AWES7525
  • appreciable efficiency
  • approach
  • approach (landing of AWECS)
  • approach (aircraft)        See also DBF (downwind, base leg, final approach)
  • APU
    • auxiliary power unit
    • airborne auxiliary power unit (AAPU)
    • airborne power unit
    • arithmetic processing unit
    • accelerating processing unit
  • AquaKiting, aqua kiting 
  • aquatic kites  
  • aquifer
  • aquaviate 
  • aquilone
  • arch
    • arch of trains     A kite system that is an arch kite with its wing-segment elements as trains of wings.
    • arch kite     See also kite arch and playsail for more.   See flying fences.
      • AWES5943
      • http://b.ss40.shsend.com//members/14648/ftp/Trains-Arches.jpg
      • static ribbon, segmented, rotating flip-wing ribbon, arch of trains, multiple arch arrays, arch farm, Mothra, Mothra 1, two-anchor arch, multi-anchor arch, curtain-tether arch,
      • arch/lattice halyards/haul line loops    "A finding is that kite arch/lattice halyards/haul line loops need to have both lines well separated by a spread fair-lead or twist-up is probableM371
      • Photo links:  | Celtic arch |
      • arch arrays
      • "kite arch"    |  "arch kite
      • invertible arch kite, invertible kite arch   AirborneWindEnergy/message/8055
      • arch ribbon kite   https://sites.google.com/site/iwworldswidestkite/
      • arch-spread tensed limit line
      • arch-oscillation modes (jellyfishing, Dutch-roll shimmy, phugoid).    Discuss: messages/10398
      • v
      • Arch

        • arch, kite arch, arch kite

        • arch of trains :: Consider a system that has two anchors spread far left and right of the power window; the arch is maintained by a series of elements where each element is not just one wing, but a train of kite wings; the whole is a series of trains that lift an arch.

  • Archaeology , or variant: archeology
    • Kites used in archaeology.  Here a conventional archaeologist uses kite systems to study land formations and patterns; KAP for archaeological sites.
    • archaeology kites
      • Land patterns that suggest kite shapes    |  Art1 on "desert kites" |  Art2 |
      • kite systems used in archaeology
    • Patron saint for archeologists: St. Helen or St. Helena, finder of the True Cross. Consider having her as a patroness for kite researchers, since the cross is so much a part of low-mass kite construction; begin with Malay and Eddy, etc.  Companion along the way of digging for information about kites. For the Christian, let the cross remind of the bridge to heaven: Christ's Body covering contradiction (cross) for redemption; ascension and soaring with lightness and joy.
    • Kite archaeology 
      • Study of human activity involving kite systems
      • Study of kites in human ways and means
    • Kite archaeologist is one who mines earth and culture for kites and kiting.  Kite researcher.   Seek the true essence of "kite."  

  • Archaeopteryx: Fussstart (Foot launch)
  • architecture
  • ARC      kites  
  • arcurate
    • arcurate flight
    • v
  • Arduino                                           [[Allister   and  Read ]]
    • v
    • v
  • ARE    Atmospheric Resources Explorer          Omnidea
  • Areal velocity    wiki       A wing might sweep an area of a square kilometer  at a slow rate or at a faster rate.  If it takes an hour to sweep 100 m2 by a wing, then that is much different situation than if the wing swept that same area in one second.
  • ARL            NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) 
  • armature
  • ARPA-E    Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy       wiki
  • arrays  in AWES
    • kite arrays
    • kite farm
    • Nomenclature:    AirborneWindEnergy/message/7919
    • See articles in FairIP  |   CoopIP
    • sparse array, "Sparse-Array" (kitefarm),
    • Dense-Array (kitefarm)
    • Let "Cross-Linked" be defined as the lateral rigging of lines aloft to gang kite units into a team. This assists closer packed formations with less potential for interference, less controls, etc
    • sprawl   "Let "Kite-Sprawl" be defined as the extreme "spread-out" effect on land and airspace usage of AWES Sparse-Arrays, as currently proposed for utility scale (gigawatt-scale). Sprawl is specifically caused by the high spacing requirements of giving clear 360-degree tether-scope to single-anchor single-kite cells. Crosslinked stacked multi-anchored kites avoid sprawl." ds
    • coterie
    • gang
    • team
    • tree
    • train
    • arch array
    • dome-node array
    • meshes
    • branching
    • bifurcations
    • trifurcations
    • nets
    • drop nets
    • flooring
    • wild array
    • progressive array
    • stacks
    • ladders
    • fans
    • trains        Photos: "kite train" | drachen-zauber.de/index_english.htm |
    • arch of trains
    • AirborneWindEnergy/message/5943
  • array of kite plants, array of kite systems, array of kite energy systems, array AWES
  • arrays of automatically controlled tethered airfoils (kites)
    • kite-energy farms 
  • arresting gear       1wiki    Momentary kiting of landing aircraft.
  • arresting nets       Nets may be kite-system held aloft or near ground; such nets may be used to arrest aircraft or free-falling humans.   Arresting nets held and moved by kite systems may catch birds, enemy aircraft, fog-water, particulates, fugitive kites, fugitive AWESs.
  • Art
  • ARTAG, ARTAGs  Autonomous Reciprocating Tethered Airfoil Generators      Discussion in 2003 by Kiteguy of Newburg, Oregon; Wayne German.     Single ARTAGs, Double ARTAGs, Triangle ARTAGs, and Arch ARTAGs.
  • artificial lift
  • artificial thermals
  • ascender (rope climbing device)   wiki     jumar   An AWECS worker might be using ascenders during operations or maintenance service.
  • ascending
  • ascending components of the atmosphere
  • ascending parachute
  • ascender
  • ascensional current        "A. Lawrence Rotch, Director of the Blue Hill Observatory, in the Aeronautical Annual for 1896, observes: "...kites have demonstrated the existence of strong ascensional currents," and on the same page (109)," from Woglom's book Parakites, page 22.
  • ascensional force
  • ascent
  • ASDE    Airport Surface Detection Equipment
  • ash seed
  • aspect
  • aspect ratio
    • real aspect ratio
    • projected aspect ratio
    • v
    • v
  • asperities        Regardless of how smooth a surface may appear, it has many small irregularities called asperities.     wiki    KES that involve rotating parts' bearings will face the challenge of asperities.
  • ASRS                Aviation Safety Reporting System        
  • assembly
    • improper assembly
    • proper assembly
    • subassembly
  • assessment project
  • astable
  • ASTAMIDS   Airborne Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Minefield Detection System
  • ASWES  ::  Airborne Seaborne Wind Energy System (ASWES)     
  • asymmetric collapse  
  • asymmetrical kite
  • asymmetry          wiki
  • ATC   air traffic control
  • ATCRBS  Air traffic control radar beacon system      M3402
  • Atena         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hm4Vu-yEswo
  • ATO  above take off            Also OTO  over take off
  • atmosphere

  • atmospheric electricity     
    • wiki
    • Lightning
    • M3221
    • AWES5306
    • H. C. Vion     US 28793   Improved method of utilizing atmospheric electricity,   June 19, 1860,
      H. Charles Vion.
    • US674427  Apparatus for collecting atmospheric electricity   Filed: Jul 10, 1900.
    • US911260  Filed Jun 26, 1907. Apparatus for collecting atmospheric electricity.
    • US1014719  Filed: Jan 4, 1911. Apparatus for collecting electrical energy.
    •  Roy Jerome MEYERS:  Improvements in and relating to Apparatus for Producing Electricity. January 14, 1914: GB191301098-A          Second source: PDF     Filed one year earlier: Jan. 14, 1913.    Some typed out version and some discussion:  viewzone.com/meyers/
    • US5367245  Filed Dec 7, 1992.  Assembly for the induction of lightning into a superconducting magnetic energy storage system
    • US20130093261 System for harvesting atmospheric electricity
    • US8045314  Method of atmospheric discharge energy conversion, storage and distribution
    • DE4205521A1  Filed Feb 24, 1992.  Receiving accumulation system for lightning energy - picks up atmospheric thunderstorm cloud discharge lightning and stores its energy
    • US20110075316  
    • DE102012111979A1
    • US7439712  Energy Collection

  • Atmospheric Systems Corporation (ASC)            SoDAR       products
  • Atmostat An atmosat is an artificial body maintaining a persistent state within the atmosphere of the earth or another planet in order to collect information for communication.   Think of Kitesat as an atmostat.

  • attitude, attitude of an aircraft
    • attitude gyro
    • attitude heading reference system  AHRS          [TU Delft, 2010)]
  • attitude of pilots, aircrew, and groundcrew.        See also ADM
    • hazardous attitudes and antidotes
    • positive attitudes
    • v

  • attractors
    • stable orbits
    • v
  • augmented-reality rope     |    Lining Yao     |
  • Autobody        Thesis
  • autodepower 
  • AutoKite
  • AutoGen        Term used by an author while describing what Makani Power has in the flygen hybrid that launches and lands as captive helicopter, but kites to drive wing-mounted blade-driven generators; electricity is sent to ground by way of electrically conductive tether.      Zachary Davies Boren of Energy Desk published an article:

  • autogiro              gyroplane autogyro  gyro-glider  gyroglider                         XOP-1 autogiro        gyrokite
  • automated system, automated kite system,
  • automated kite power system   
  • automatic
  • automatic flight of tethered airfoils  
    • autozeniths     airbornewindenergy10674
    • autolaunch, autolauches
    • autokills
    • autolands, autodetethers,
    • autoburns
    • autoreelsin
    • autoreelsout
    • v
    • v
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)
  • autonomous AWECS, autonomousAWECS     
    All AWECS that have even the slightest chance of causing damage to land, life, people, properties, etc. should have a manual override.  Semi-automatic AWECS vary in the amount of automatics embedded while a human team (perhaps one person) operates the system in various amounts. [[Differently, see manualAWECS]]   A human supervision will be needed, like for a plane. A plane without human pilot cannot reply acceptably to exigency.]]
  • autonomous control
    • See also "supervised automation"   AWES7571
    • v
    • v
  • autonomous kite systems of fantasy   These science-fiction kites self-replicate, self-repair, self-launch, self-pause their flight, self-re-launch; they might perform special works. These kites are fully apart from human interventions, even though they may have received origination from human actions. Some of these kites will be gathering energy from wind for use in their own welfare and operations as well as the needs of other entities, perhaps human. Hopefully these kite systems favor the life of humans and animals. They sculpt themselves to be successful in their environments, so they do not cease to be a kind.
  • autonomous kite energy control  
  • autonomous launch
  • autonomous operation    [not to be confused with anonymous operation! ]
  • autonomous platforms      AWES7571
  • autonomous recovery
  • autonomous recuperation
  • autonomous relaunch 
  • autonomous survivability  of an AWECS
  • autonomy              Thesis1
  • autopilot           M273
  • Autorotation
    • Let us note that "AutoRotation" applies to all passive flow-driven rotation, from HAWTs and gyrocopters, to looping parafoils, gyrokites, unpowered bladed turbines, spinners (air or water).
    • autorotator  
    • Autorotor
    • The current article in Wikipedia has severe errors in its title.
    • GeneralLink
  • auto-sweep
  • Automotor Journal, The Automotor Journal    "Since early in the decade, British weekly The Automotor Journal had been tracking aviation developments under the label Aeronautics"    Google Books has digitized some of the journal.      Ultimately FLIGHT followed from the company for the aeronautics concerns, beginning in Jan. 2, 1909.
  • AUVSI Foundation   
  • http://www.auvsi.org/home/    Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International
    Will passively-controlled AWES be "unmanned vehicle system?
    • Unmanned Systems Magazine     Unmanned Systems, AUVSI's monthly publication

  • auxiliary balloon
  • auxiliary kite      US612996    Year: 1898   Wilhelm Hans Von Siegsfeld, aka  R.M.W.H. Von Siegsfeld, aka Rudolf Max Wilhelm Hans von Siegsfeld
  • auxiliary line
  • AUW  all-up weight
  • auxiliary propulsion technology
  • availability of wind
  • A. van Gries, inventor. Patent GB489139, filed in 1937 . Discuss: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/kitepatents/message/1182
  • average
    • average power at the generator            Paper1   
    • v
    • v
    • v
    • v
  • aves            the birds    Ornithes        Intro
    • v
    • v
    • v
    • v
  • avian
  • Avian hang gliders   http://www.avian.hanggliding.dk/
    Avian Ltd. Stretfield, Bradwell, Hope Valley, Derbyshire S33 9JT, UK
  • Avian Energy
  • avian protection plan
  • aviation
  • aviation integration issue  
  • Aviation and aeronautical engineering, Volume 1.       August 1, 1916 Semi-monthly.
  • aviation power   http://www.hnsa.org/doc/pdf/aviationpower.pdf
  • Aviation Safety Reporting System        ASRS
    = Integrating AWE with established airspace users.
  • avigation easement
  • avionics       [[ED: Requesting articles on avionics fit for AWE.  Notes@EnergyKiteSystems.net  ]]       Kestrel Autopilot    (TM)     Offered.     Kestrel Autopilot System (KAS)     "Autonomous Autopilot and Ground Control For Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles"     [[This mention is not a recommendation of fitness for AWE.]]
  •  avoided-cost rate    
  • AWCL   assisted windy-cliff launch     
  • AWCP    airborne wind-capturing platforms  
  • AWE  "advise when established"     http://chihchin.myweb.hinet.net/Data/united_states_of_america.htm   Air traffic control usage.
  • AWE American West Airlines ICAO code. The ICAO airline designator is a code assigned by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).  
  • AWE, the movie:   AWEM (airborne wind energy movie)    See: AWES7346
  • AWEA   American Wind Energy Association   Distinguish from AWEIA for AWES industry.
  • AWE aircraft        
  • AWE advertising     See advertising  for full discourse on many dimensions and aspects.
  • AWE      Airborne Wind Energy    AirborneWindEnergy AWE   airborne wind energy, open-source AWE, closed-source AWE,          [[other uses of the acronym: acronymfinder.com/AWE.html]]
  • AWE acceptance.    See also AWET diffusion, wind-energy technology diffusion
  • AWE Automation Open Source development    M3370
  • AWE birds       "species of AWE birds"                           [ PJ of Sky WindPower, 2011.]
  • AWE books, AWE reference books, AWEbook, 
    • Discuss each AWE book: HERE.
    • v
    • v
    • v
  • AWE commerce, commerce notices,
  • AWE Community Founders' Circle   entered AWEIA community before midnight of December 31, 2010.    AWECFC
  • AWE concepts                airborne wind energy concepts
  • AWE baseload
  • AWE Basket Investment Fund explained
  • AWE beating the HAWT        Issue: When AWE systems show an economic profile more interesting than the horizontal axis wind turbine on hard towers, then AWE will be widely embraced.  The ETA for  wide acceptance of AWE beating HAWT is __________________.
  • AWE competence
  • AWE credibility
  • AWEC  airborne wind energy converter       Devices that are airborne and convert wind energy to work or to other forms of energy like electricity.
  • AWEC airborne wind energy community     The community of persons that is advancing the use of airborne wind energy converter
  • AWEC airborne wind energy committees 
  • AWEC airborne wind energy collection
  • AWEC airborne wind energy collector
  • AWEC airborne wind energy conference 
  • AWEC airborne wind energy corporation
  • AWEC  Airborne Wind Energy Community
  • AWEC airborne wind energy consortium   


  • AWE critical path          M3797
  • AWECS  airborne wind energy conversion system

    Low-altitude airborne wind energy systems       LAAWECS or LA-AWECS

    Medium-altitude airborne wind energy systems MAAWECS or MA-AWECS

    Sweet-spot airborne wind energy systems SSAWECS or SS-AWECS

    High-altitude airborne wind energy systems      HAAWECS or HA-AWECS

    A wide variety of AWE methods are being identified for low-altitude airborne wind-energy capture. Tethering between mountains, buildings, aerostats, kytoons, etc. at low-altitude mine messy winds, Venturi sites, artificial streams, high-coordination with water flows, etc.
    Also, a generous choice of methods for high-altitude airborne wind-energy capture present to engineers. Two large categories of methods:
    1. Ground (or water) moored (fixed or mobile)
    2. Free-flight dynamic (no tether to ground or water)

    A couple of severe types within the umbrella categories of LA-, MA-, SS-, or HA- regards
    1. position of the generator or pump: lofted gen or groundstationed gen; and
    2. whether or not the system is an "ever-up" or a system that frequently collapses into a non-working phase.

    Control further affects design: active control (robotic or human or combination) or passive control.

    Additionally, size or scale matters.

    Specific application and budget drive final design of AWECS.

  • AWECS  Airborne Wind Energy Collection System


    Note: Another use of "AWECS" in the modern renewable energy field is being promoted for a water-world system:

    Amplified Wave Energy Converter System (AWECS), (Patent Applied For). AWECS uses ocean wave energy to safely, reliably and inexpensively desalinate and purify saline water initially and later to provide a new source of renewable energy to our waiting Planet.

  • AWECS rigger
  • AWECS scale:
    Free-Flight, national, utility, commercial, residential, nomadic, sport, toy, miniature, micro  These ten scales over-lap and feed solutions into other scales.

    Related terms: 
    free-flightAWE, nationalAWE, utilityAWE, commercialAWE, residentialAWE, nomadicAWE, sportAWE, toyAWE, miniatureAWE or miniAWE, microAWE.

    Related open phrases:
    free-flight AWE, national AWE, utility AWE, commercial AWE, residential AWE, nomadic AWE, sport AWE, toy AWE, miniature AWE,  micro AWE

    FF-AWE, FF-AWECS, seaAWE, oceanAWE, sea AWE, ocean AWE

    At each scale there are inventors, designers, technicians, and users, sometimes with overlapping interests and applications. A very large amount of development remains to be accomplished.

  • AWECS plans         Full plans with specifications for an AWECS distributed on the Internet for a toyAWE system, for a sportAWE system, for a nomadicAWE system, etc. will occur. We hope the plans have been made from a fully-working safe system.
  • AWECS technician, installer, field engineer, maintenance technician, certified installer, certified inspector,
  • AWE cylinder, AWEcylinder     (airspace use by AWE flight system)

  • awareness    See: situational awareness, common situational awareness

  • AWE diffusion, AWET diffusion, airborne wind-energy-technology diffusion,


  • AWE developer

  • AWE Documentary, awedocumentary.org     AWE, the movie.

  • AWE-driven civilization                        AWES6751

    • v

    • v

    • v

  • AWE Encampment    AirborneWindEnergy/message/8865

    • First AWE Encampment:  Texas AWE Encampment


  • AWE engineer

  • AWE'ers        Those who do AWE work.   Dave Lang first used the term.  M3613

  • AWE ETOPS as a generic term for issues of persistent flight of our AWECS.     ETOPS

  • AWE experimental centers

  • AWE experimentation

  • AWEfest        and      http://www.awefest.org/index.html 

  • AWEFBO   AWE fixed-base operator     M105

  • AWE field         The set of entities and their actions that are developing and using AWECS

  • AWE Flyoff

    • Gather the field of top contenders in airborne wind energy and run through a series of comparative tests including:

      * Modeling and simulation
      * Field trials (where applicable)
      * Durability testing of critical components


  • AWEG Airborne wind energy generation, generators

  • AWEGs  airborne wind energy generators

  • AWEGS airborne wind energy generating systems     (alt for AWES )

  • AWE glue: JoeF, says Wayne German, 18Jan2012.

  • AWEHS   airborne wind energy harvesting systems

  • AWEHSS airborne wind energy harvesting systems study      NASA

  • AWE Investment Winter (201-2012)

  • AWEIA, Airborne Wind Energy Industry Association  (global org ).
    Mission statement. Collective IP. Cooperative R&D. Lobby. Cooperation. Representation. Assistance to start-ups. Founders. First directors. First officers. First members. Calendar. Historian. Members. Officers. Bylaws. Incorporation. Directors. CFO. Treasurer. Secretary. President. Member benefits.  Honorary fellows nominated so far: Wayne German, David H. Shepard, John Etzler.  Meetings. Minutes.   Voting. Newsletter. Editor.  Logo. Membership categories. Assets. Liabilities. Tax reports. Income. Expenses. Passkeys. Records site.  Staff. Contracts. 

  • AWEify           
    Look at a tech matter and wonder if that matter could play a part in energy kite systems or airborne wind energy systems; that wondering is about integrating a subject tech into AWE or AWECS.   Verb: "AWEify" .   Ask about any tech: Can that be AWEified                     M3295      AWEifications is a noun form.  AWEified is an adjective form.    AWEifying is a gerund form.    

  • AWE investor                 :: those who invest in AWE companies and project

  • AWE irrigation system         Also see  kite-pump

  • AWE issues

  • AWE jobs      AWES Jobs       Jobs and opportunities in AWE industry.

  • AWE King              AWES5313

  • AWE-lympics showcase various methods and sizes of AWECS?  

  • AWEM (airborne wind energy movie)    See: AWES7346

  • AWEN    Airborne Wind Energy Network 

  • AWE naval transportation

  • AWEnergy

  • AWEP   airborne wind energy platforms

  • AWE Pilot Union   (proposed by DaveS on Dec. 23, 2011. AWES5173  "My ambition is to be a gigawatt-scale kite-farm pilot, and in my mind the union is already in existence, as a natural extension of ALPA, the historic model, ..."

  • AWE platforms    AWEP

  • AWE process terms  

  • AWE Programming 

  • AWE proposal 

  • The AWE Race is on ....     What are some of the aspects of the AWE Race? 
    PR, merit, IP, airspace governance, fly-off competitions,        Notes are welcome.

  • AWE-ready tech, AWE-ready tricks, AWE-ready technology.    In other technology fields there are ready solutions that may be brought into AWECS

  • AWErep      AWE regional representative.

  • AWE report                                   AWECS report

  • AWE research

  • AWE research center

  • AWE risks

  • AWE Rotor Club

  • AWES        airborne wind energy systems 

    • =  One-Tenth-Scale AWES    SeeHERE

    • =  Quarter-Scale AWES

    • =  Full-Scale AWES

    • =  An "AWES" is a airborne system that interacts with the wind with the result that the wind is slowed while the AWES converts some of the wind's kinetic energy to other forms of energy (kinetic energy of AWES parts, potential energy of AWES parts, heat of AWES parts, for example; AWES never "create" energy, as that would counter the law of conservation of energy. The AWES energies often do works in the AWES itself and while so working effect changes in the wind and other parts of the environment that may be connected to the AWES. When the AWES is a kite system, then the energies gained from conversions of the wind's kinetic energy may work to alter the anchor systems. AWES may fulfill practical needs and tasks; "practical" could be subjective; "need" could be subjective.

      • ==  Various people look to AWES' converted energy to fulfill their particular needs and objectives that well may differ from the needs and objectives of other users of the energies involved. High emphasis on "fulfilling needs and tasks" by use of AWES is forming an era "K3" for kiting, though there are some AWES that are not kites. Every flying kite system is an AWES as such systems convert some of the wind's energy and then uses some of such energy to do work; momentarily some of the energy is placed as potential energy like in the kept altitude of the mass of the kite system's masses, or in the kept stretch of the elastic portions of the parts of the system.  Some people are wanting to build into the kite systems parts that focus on converting the gained energy into noise more than would be common, or into light more than would be common, or gross mass motion more than would be common, or electricity more than would be common, etc.  

      • == Some of the users of kite systems have in mind a particular result of their choosing and refuse to append "AWES" on a machine until their particular favored result is accomplished; such position disrespects the inherent core of a flying kite system which already fulfills the definition of an airborne wind energy system.  Ultimate aims of fulfilling a defined task may well sort any "definition controversy" in the related technical community's text.  Identifying precise tasks or applications for a kite system to fulfill may give clarity to developments. There are thousands of identified tasks that AWES are invited to fulfill by proposal, and hundreds of identified tasks being fulfilled throughout the world every day. And so era K3 grows and evolves by way of modifications to AWES to fulfill certain tasks.   [A hint of definitional struggle may be had by visiting the thread of posted messages HERE.  Notes from others are welcome.]

        • === Some tasks are seemingly more popular than others, but such does not invalidate niche applications that may not be so popular.

        • === Some tasks involve the holding of parts in the kite system that generate electricity at a robust level more than occurs without attention to have special parts like highly evolved electric generators; such electric generators may be integrated into aloft parts of the kite system or in the resistive anchor parts of the kite system.   When such highly advanced electric generators are integrated in a complex kite system, then the wind's energy converted by the kite system is channeled by design to drive the electric generator; such channeled energy is not then available to the kite system to do other works that might otherwise occur. Energy is not created, but only conserved in various ways. This sector of AWE is receiving investment funds from robust sources, partly with the hope in mind that AWES of this sector might go a good distance in reducing the need for fossil fuels in the world.

        • === Another highly popular task is "pulling things" where things are other than the pulling around the shaft of an electric generator, but rather like pulling a boat,  kiteboarder, plow, ground scraper, cart, etc. These AWES specialize in channeling energy converter from the wind into overcoming the friction and resistance of objects to be moved about the sky or ground or water. The pulled objects move and the energy is found converted into other forms like potential energy, heat of friction, turbulence of waters, kinetic energy of the moved masses, etc.  Some of such "pulling" and generation of heat occurs even in the most simple kite. Cargo ships are being pulled; such replaces some use of fossil fuels. Kiteboarders are being pulled about by AWES; and when such activity replaces such activity as racing fossil-fuel vehicles, then some headway seems to be made to reduce use of fossil fuels.


  • AWES aspects         SeeHereAlso  (send in missing aspects, thanks)  
    Discuss aspects in the  forum.




  • AWES Museum is in an embryonic stage without open hours. Direct visits are not permitted; some items are shown in visits at exterior venues.  Los Angeles, California. Founded by K.I.T.E.S.A. Holdings are objects, papers, books, and digital records. Stewardship of most of the matter is by EnergyKiteSystems and shared to the world online.  Others may enter items for the collection by e-mail or URL reference or by postal mail arranged with the curator.  

  • AWE Science , Kite Energy Science,  AWE Big Science



  • AWE scale: utility, commercial, residential, nomadic, sport, toy, miniature, or micro.   microAWE, miniatureAWE, toyAWE, sportAWE, nomadicAWE, residentialAWE, commercialAWE, utilityAWE

  • AWE is a branch of aviation for the purpose of wind energy.

  • AWES scope

  • AWEsome Austin     refers to the high-level of human energy (awesome) being applied in the Austin, Texas region on airborne wind energy (AWE) and kin technologies. (Source so far: Darin Selby)

  • AWE sweet zone  (attitude zone)  M158

  • AWE system as tower        This is an issue in AWE industry.

  • AWET   airborne wind energy technology

  • AWE tech ,    AWE technology,   AWET

  • AWE theory   

  • AWE utility arch      M337

  • AWE technician

  • AWE technologist

  • AWEV   airborne wind energy vehicle

  • AWT    airborne wind turbine          Also, some are using same for a different focus, more refined:     Aerostat Wind Turbine.  Notice that a powered aircraft can put into stream a device that is a wind turbine for various reasons; such device would be airborne and a wind turbine, perhaps used for a sensing instrument or charging a glider's batteries or for cooling.   See also:  TAWT for tethered airborne wind turbine,  or for another focus: tethered aircraft wind turbine; and differently for another focus for tethered aerostat wind turbine.

  • axial compression

  • axial compressive loading

  • axial flow design

  • axial-flow blade turbine     HAWT

  • axial-flow impeller turbine   HAWT with blade turbine is inside a channel or duct

  • axial flow propeller turbine   HAWT      Should be axial-flow blade turbine if open to the flow without duct.  Else, if ducted: axial-flow impeller turbine.  


  • axial-flow wind turbines

  • axial force              Axial-mode linear wind-turbine by Ragner.     KPm484   

  • axial flux generator   or axial-flux alternator      

  • axial multi-rotor AWECS

    • Early tech for water, air, display. Many patents show multiple rotors on a common axis.

    • "axial multi-rotor ", multiple turbine rotors on a common axis.

      Examples- SuperTurbine
      ®, my old Windward Sailor DITW (direct into the wind) toy, the historic Dutch combo Archimedes-screw/wind-turbine, Fulton era steamboat multi-rotors, etc.,

    • SpiralAirfoil units on a common axle results in an axial multi-rotor device

    • v

    • v

    • v

    • v

  • axial stiffness

  • axial wind turbine

  • axis

  • AYRS   Amateur Yacht Research Society     [ED: AWE affect a sector in yachting: providing tug, providing energy for on-board use, kiteYachting, kiteSailing, ]

  • azimuth

 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • KeywordList