Home          Your notes are welcome: Editor@UpperWindpower.com             Most recent edit: Tuesday May 07, 2013

Parameters in AWES, Kite Energy Systems
Analysts are invited to describe their assumptions, contexts, parameters, sample uses, illustrative analysis, references, ...

See also:  Variables  | Parameters  |  Parameters of interest to investors  |
 | Aspects  | AWE aspects | Methods  |

LCOE- Very tricky to design for, perhaps the most complex key variable of all.
Max Power- An top deliverable, but no good at all if other critical variables are neglected.
Max Stability- Generally overlooked in favor of active autonomy beyond current state-of-the-art.
Safety- Absolutely essential and well understood, but with complex economic dimensions.
KIS (Low Complexity)- Early favored and possibly unbeatable, but requires great faith and focused discipline.
Operations- Many ideas are doomed by gaps in operational practicality (like jumbo kiteplane VTOL).
Capital Cost- A high LCOE is acceptable in many cases if the "cost of entry" is low enough, and payback is fast.
Maximized Space- Land and airspace efficiency will determine acceptability in key cases.
Robust Reliability- Essential, but deeply interdependent with other essential variables.
Insurability, Regulatory Compliance, Social Factors, etc..

Discuss: AirborneWindEnergy/message/8292

Working. Sift papers.  Invite references and sample uses:apparent wind

AR = aspect ratio
CD = aerodynamic drag coefficient
CL = aerodynamic lift coefficient
CM = aerodynamic moment coefficient
D or FD = aerodynamic drag force [N]
E = E-modulus [N/m2]
f = frequency [1/s]
Fa = resultant aerodynamic force vector [N]
g = gravitational acceleration vector [m/s2]
h = altitude [m]
I = inertial moment [kg m2]   
[[Indicated multiplication, as multiplication dot will be reserved for dot product of vectors]]
l = length [m]
L or FL = aerodynamic lift force [N]
Ma = aerodynamic moment vector [Nm]
m = mass [kg]
n = normal vector
p = pressure [N/m2]
P = power [W]
r = radius [m]
r = position vector [m]
S or A = surface area [m2]
t = time [s]
T or Ft = tether force [N] 
[[ t here in subscript is for "tether"]]      tension    | Line Encyclopedia |
u = control vector            
v = velocity [m/s]
va = apparent wind velocity = (vw  −  vk) [m/s]        wiki/Apparent_wind
 [[ k here in subscript is for kite]]
k = velocity of kite                            
vw = wind velocity [m/s]  [[ w here in subscript is for wind]]
v= free stream velocity [m/s]
x = state vector                     Orbital_state_vectors
α = angle of attack [rad]
β = sideslip angle [rad]
η = efficiency
κ = camber
λ = crosswind factor
ρ = air density [kg/m3]
ω = angular velocity 
[[The SI unit of angular velocity is radians per second.]]  [ s−1 ]

    =  angular acceleration  [ s−2 ]    [rad/s2]      [Author is to define symbol without confusion with other parameters; α  is common, but do not confuse with angle of attack.]


(roll, pitch, yaw)=

w = {P, Q, R} = components of angular velocity
wx = P, wy = Q, wz = R. 


Coordinates and rotation sets P,Q,R = roll, pitch, and yaw angular velocities  [
s−1], with the agreement that (x,y,z) = (roll axis, pitch axis, yaw axis)=(tail to nose fuselage axis, center to right wing tip axis, center to down normal to roll and pitch axes) under right hand directioning.  Note: Avoid being confused by geometric lettering. Convention has it:  P for the roll.  Q for the pitch. R for the yaw.     Aeronautics: "xyz convention"   "time derivative of angles"    Concern:  "gimbal lock"  "body frame"   

r,θ,φ = radial distance, polar angle, and azimuthal angle [rad]
x,y,z = Cartesian coordinates [m]
φ,θ,ψ = roll, pitch, yaw angles [rad]

Unless otherwise defined, right-handed coordinate systems are a first choice in notes.

SI Units: m :: meters,   s :: seconds of time,  rad :: radians,  kg :: kilogram (mass),  m3 is the cube of meters,

Call for parameter notes was posted:     AirborneWindEnergy/message/8205    Dec. 14, 2012.

  •  "crosswind-speed-ratio" (CSR) comes closest to a consistent nomenclature...(ratio of crosswind airspeed to true windspeed)      ~ds, Dec. 14, 2012        [[This would be a scalar quantity, not a vector.  ~JpF]]
  • v


TABLE IV Standard SI units. Note that the kelvin does not
have a degree symbol. Thus a temperature of 180 K does not
have a degree symbol and is read \180 kelvins."
Unit Abbreviation
ampere A
barn b
becquerel Bq
coulomb C
electron volt eV
farad F
gram g
henry H
hertz Hz
kelvin K
degrees Celsius C
meter m
pascal Pa
second s
steradian sr
tesla T
volt V
watt W
weber Wb

Other derived units:
kilowatt hour  kW h  or kWh  {The terms power and energy are frequently confused. Power is the rate at which energy is generated or consumed. Power therefore has the unit watts, which is joules per second. A unit of energy is kilowatt hour}
joule  J

PARAMETER KEY regarding part of DrJack's service:
Basic parameter information is provided at http://www.drjack.info/BLIP/INFO/basic_parameters.html
More complete parameter descriptions are at http://www.drjack.info/BLIP/RUC/INFO/parameters.html
Additional help is at http://www.drjack.info/BLIP/INFO/index.html e.g. "For NEW USERS" section.

Let us know you and your interests.
News, notes, documents, files:  Editor@UpperWindpower.com
~~Kite Energy Community~~