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Paragliding's Wings

https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com%2Fpdfs%2FUS953198.pdf&docid=03330c6529c697f9b42d52b1be89b554&a=bi&pagenumber=1&w=800 https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com%2Fpdfs%2FUS953198.pdf&docid=03330c6529c697f9b42d52b1be89b554&a=bi&pagenumber=3&w=800

  • BARISH David, inventeur du parapente monopeau, glide wing, us 3480238
    27 02 67   http://energykitesystems.net/DavidBarish/3480238BarishGlideWing.pdf
  • The file is in French and 36 MB.    Much to discuss from the high quality presentation.

    l' aile d'eau  by Luc Armant

    Related and from SeaGlider site.

  • Roots of paragliding can be seen in the replacing a moving-on-ground human kite system with falling-human kite system. Today's paragliders are kite systems with a moving anchor (resistive agent tethered to wing).
    • Parakites by Woglom (on left of page reached, download the classic book in the format wished) Parakites : a treatise on the making and flying of tailless kites for scientific purposes and for recreation (1896)
    • Paraglider

    Stiffened chord  by ram-air or battens or other means

    • Chord is stiffened battens single skin, single-surface, span-keep by aerodynamic pressures:     William Allison wing derivatives
    • Chord is stiffened by ram-air box cells and flexible ribs, double-surface:  Jalbert parafoil derivatives
    • Barish Sailwing single-skin partial-second surface (SSP2S)   OutLeader by KiteShip, XXLite, Barretina Hyper Lite
    • Rogallo parawing fully limp
    • Rogallo parawing with booms inflated or stick or tensairity and derivatives
    • OutLeader Wing (patented, assigned to KiteShip)  and its derivatives or evolutes:  OutLeader, XXLite, and
SS, DS, TS, limp, stiffened, Paramontante, Sol,
  • SS : playsail, Rogallo Wing, parawing, parachute, governable SS parachutes, OutLeader, Allison, etc.
  • DS : parafoil versions, DSMC, etc.
  • TS : three surfaces
  • SSP2S:   Barish Sailwing, XXLite, Barretina Hyper Lite, etc.
  • SSDSSC Single-skin double-surface single-cell
  • Stacked : Two or more wing elements in stack. Control systems: vary. Consider wireless RC as well as string.
  • Framed:  Paramontante
  • Hybrids:
  • Pos-inflated with pressure keepers and pressure limiters
  • LEI
  • Futures:
    • Thread-puff paraglider
    • Kite-stack with RC of stack from pilot pod
    • Sensitive-skin PG
    • Constant pos-inflated PG
    • Pleated and firmed PG using graphane and graphene
    • Smart-skin
  • v


Homebuilt paragliders
Commercial paragliders certified by some agent or uncertified.
Uncertified commercially made paragliders
  • ATAK      http://issuu.com/dudekparagliders/docs/atak-www-en
  • XXLite prototype for the moment  by OZONE     has a substantial lower surface (distinct from its upper surface) that forms a thick leading edge (LE) as well as significantly aft of the LE. What %  of the chord is  that double-surface?

    Unconfirmed data                         Luc Armant
        1.40 kg including elevators
        19 m2  thermalled with 110 kg onboard)
        3 liters volume
        For the moment 3 km/h slower than a same surface Ultralite, and overall performance close to it.
        Very slow minimum speed.
    • Will show the wing at Coupe Icare  in this month September 2011. The 38th COUPE ICARE will welcome you happily in St Hilaire du Touvet - Lumbin from September 22-25, 2011.
  • Centuries-old aviation and airfoil culture has a single-surface airfoil sector. Supporting safety, history, clarity, commerce, and opportunity for designing form part of the issue. Calling out the clear % of chord that it is double-surface would help. When a woman is a little-bit pregnant, then she is pregnant. The huge significant double-surface (distinct from the upper surface) of the XXLite brings it into the class of wings have double-surface for a significant amount of its chord. Being with status, we hope OZONE will support the needed clarities. Indeed, traditional single-surface wings and coming actual single-surface wings need the respect also. Safety and encouragement of invention are issues woven in this matter. OZONE has been directly asked to consider getting the clarities up front in the early game; they still have opportunity to be in tune with aviation history, culture, and helpfulness for future design, invention, and commerce.  ~JoeF    Sept. 22, 2011
Certified commercially made paragliders
  • SOL     http://www.solparagliders.com.br/  SOL was founded in 1991 and after 6 months of researches and visits to factories it started manufacturing in partnership with Condor, Comet and Nova. And in 1999 created its own development and tests centre. The research is coordinated by André Rottet.     Year 2011 is going to be a special year – its our 20th anniversary of the first paraglide flight manufactured by SOL Paragliders (FUN Gliders)  The Magic Fun 001-91 in green color--meaning hope--made its first flight on the Brava beach in August 1991.
  • ULTRALITE: World's Lightest Paraglider!  Under 3 kg. (note: of course, though light, it is not the world's lightest paraglider; it is OZONE's lightest.   Lighter paragliders were flown in Venice, CA, in early 1970s. )
PPS:       Any mention of "paragliders" in today's accepted sense should be accompanied by an asterisk, signifying "this is a very weird aircraft best suited for very weird pilots". Who ever heard of a wing with extreme anhedral (tips much lower than center section), also having such extreme "pendulum" stability (due to CG far below wing surface area) as to give an overall dihedral effect? That's more or less like having one engine pointing forwards and a second engine pointing backwards… could we ask for any more drag? So we are exposing acres of surface area to the flow (in case of sideslip) for no particular reason…

Steve                                                     October 8, 2011