Yet to be woven into the preamble for this era from all nations:
aeromodelling, art, comprehensive print media, radio, TV,
aerodynamicists, kiting, patents, literature, technical literature,
school textbooks, gliding and soaring club newsletters, toys for all
ages, and a comprehensive hold on the collection of arts already
evident at the start of the decade. When these and the below flows or
strands are well-known and up for reasoned view, then issues and
questions will be more easily answered. Rash meta-claiming occurs, but
the rush to judgment can be softened by working robust context and
objectivity across borders and perspectives. Everyone is invited to
explore something that interests them that will affect this decade's
understanding and explication. Illustrations and references are
invited. We invite each nation to bring forward their matters. The
present treatment is USA heavy; bring forward your nation's patents, activities, related applications, etc. [Aerojet, FIRST, Fabrication of Inflatable Re-entry Structures for Test?, re-entry glider, ] ==>EnterData+
John Worth is core
contributor to the A-framed stiffened four-boom Rogallo wing standard mechanics, though not
inventor. Later, in a silly and unfair title-wrestling match, another John would
untenably claim mechanical invention; and without adequate scrutiny the FAI
would rubber-stamp the untenable title; it is hoped that one day the FAI will
correct its historical faux pas.
James Hobson in 1962 on TV and in
Sport Aviation had an A-framed Rogallo hang glider; this too was prior to
Mike Burns; and such was certainly prior to the JD-GH untenable claims
that concerned later 1963 tinkerings. James Hobson died April
26, 2013. His unfolding story is occurring
James Hobson and Barry Hill Palmer are the two outstanding 1962 builder-fliers
of foot-launch NASA-inspired stiffened Rogallo wing hang gliders for
recreation-sport purposes. Both received national and international
Transitional Era: 1960-1969 (roots of the 70s' boon) Images galore around the world for post-war space-race hang gliding roots: NASA seeking national hang glider for space race purposes continues from 1958 spark; "Dr." Francis Rogallo streaming leadership and patents over Rogallo wing and its applications; arts prep: water-ski kiting; Ryan applications; Parawing project deepens and trifurcates; foot-launch-land and trike Rogallo-wing homebuilt hang glider designer pioneer: Barry Palmer; kite king Domina Jalbert parafoil ram-air airfoil wing; Paresev 1A-B-C cements
wing, flight proofing, and flying for standard Rogallo hang glider wing
and proves stability and control from high altitude releases to
free-flight; Tom Purcell leads pontooned aqua glider towing of Rogallo wings; David Barish wing and paragliding activity for sport that would end mostly using Jalbert wing;mimics and tweaks: Burns-SkiPlane and Dickenson-Burns ski kite; Jim Hobson of Lawrence Welk Show director/producer;media spot influences: Steve Allen show; magazine covers, articles, corporate reports, ...;bridge from soaring strand while keeping traditional variety in hang gliders:
Richard Miller, Klaus Hill.
ForemanBat-Glider plans. Soaring pilot photographer George Uveges was close
working friends to Richard
Miller at Dockweiler Beach and took photographs that were used later on the
Bat-Glider plans. Richard Miller encouraged Jim Foreman to make,
print, and sell the Bat-Glider plans. Thousands of copies of the
Rogallo-wing with strutted triangle control-bar--all-bamboo framed hang glider--were sold. An enthusiastic
teen Taras Kiceniuk, Jr. pasted over the
title block of the Bat-Glider plans and sold some copies. At some point
a copy of such copyright intrusion was brought to Foreman's attention. A
cease order was extended formally; an agreement was met; and the
secondary distribution method stopped. Taras built his own
bamboo glider Batso with some friends and made some drawings of his own;
and then Taras sold some copies of his Batso plans, some modification in
the truss arrangement from the Foreman Bat-Glider. The
strong large-sheet lithographed plans of the Bat-Glider
forwarded by Jim Foreman into the world scene--spawned from the
Fleep-Palmer-Miller strand of influence--did play a
strong role in forming a
hang glider movement in the world and in Southern California; that
movement grew in many ways.
Jim Foreman had visited the SSA office when Richard Miller
was acting editor of Soaring magazine; Jim was actually searching
for plans of primary gliders. Richard indicated that many more plans for
a hang glider could be sold in comparison to plans for a primary glider;
Jim relates: "He opened a desk drawer and tossed a small stack of
Xeroxed plans for a Rogallo wing along with the proof sheet of Uveges
photos." Richard pulled out from his desk some photostat papers
and a proof sheet images of Uveges photos depicting the flights by
Miller and Miller's friends at Dockweiler Beach on a hang glider Miller
had made. Miller instructed Foreman that there would be no
opportunity to advertise or even to write about hang gliders in
Soaring magazine; further, the deal was that Miller's name was not
to be mentioned in the promotion; Miller had just gotten off the phone
with heavies in SSA who pressed that hang gliders were not to be in
Soaring magazine. So, Jim Foreman took the papers and proof sheet;
and then he formed the Bat-Glider plans, purchased lithographic
printing and began selling the plans through other avenues. The date of
Jim's arrival at the SSA office is not known yet, but tracing Miller's
editorship term would be part of this determination. [This note was sent
HangGliderHistory.com for its Timeline. Dates
are being researched.]
Bamboo Butterfly by and shown flying:
Richard Miller, photographed by George Uveges of Santa Monica, CA (now
in his eighties and still active) at Dockweiler in early 1960s.
The image from a slide became part of the Bat Glider plans
published by Jim Foreman with permission by Richard and George.
A similar craft Batso following this lead was built by Taras
Kiceniuk, Jr. and team and flown in Los Angeles, California, and in
Livermore, California at self-soar meets. The bamboo choice and
use was rough-and-fast. What might be done with high-level
Did Rogallo invent the triangle control frame for hang gliders?
No, the triangle control frame or A-frame for hang gliders was invented mechanically for
foot launch hang gliders in at least the early year of 1908 in Breslau
in a hang glider in an organized gliding-club setting;
further use was in many places including the Spratt before the 1950s; and a
firm use was in a kite-glider for homebuilders by Igor
Bensen...well published in the first half of 1950s; Mike Burns SkiPlane used
the A-frame in 1962. The first decade of 1900s had a first issue
of FLIGHT; in that issue was a featuring of the triangle A-frame for
aviation. The Pilcher hang glider had a firm A-frame.
There was no triangle bar Rogallo at Otto Meet of May 23, 1971. The
first triangle bar Rogallo at a So. California meet was Kilbourne's at
the Montgomery meet in August of 1971 (ref: Matt Colver).
[Wiki note, status, April 11, 2009:
Author: George Uveges of Santa Monica,
California. Historic photo of designer Richard Miller flying his
design "Bamboo Butterfly." A precursor to Richard Miller's
construction shown was an article regarding I Flew the Flex Wing
published by Popular Mechanics magazine in the November 1961
issue; that article was not by or about Richard Miller.
16:47, 11 April 2009 (UTC)
The photograph is from a slide authored by George
Uveges of Santa Monica, California, who is still active in his
eighties (2009 note here). George Uveges gave a slide copy to Richard
Miller,then editor of Soaring Magazine of the Soaring Society
of America, then headquartered at the Santa Monica Airport just 1 mile
distant from Geoge Uveges' home. Richard Miller and George Uveges gave
permission to Jim Foreman to use the image on the paper-printed plans
of the Bat Glider; thousands of copies of the plans were sold
by mailorder. The session photographed was definitely not 1961, but a
few years later at Dockweiler Beach dunes where now is a developed
hang glider flight training park run by
Windsports and managed by Joe Greblo. George Uveges may still be
contacted for dating the photograph. Since the craft shown and the
photograph were formed after 1961, then whatever Popular Mechanics
magazine published in November 1961 could not be the plan by Richard
Miller for the shown Bamboo Butterfly. Foreman named his
planned craft Bat Glider. Taras Kiceniuk, Jr. followed up on
the image and plans with his own built and flown craft which Taras
16:35, 11 April 2009 (UTC) ]
Bridge from water-ski
towed kiting to the two sporting Bills occurs: Bill Moyes and Bill Bennett; archetype explorer over stiffened flexible wings and replicas: Tony Prentice; self-soar synergetic bridge from body-flying, kiting, aircraft, and soaring to universal communications: Joe Faust; transitional archetype: Wilbur Dean Batman (manned flat kite, towed homebuilt delta, Moyes purchase, S-SA Otto Member, communicator, trikester)
Notes: Link prefix with "g" is a generalized Google search. Prefix with a "w" is a leading Wikipedia file on topic.
SOME EARLY ERA IMAGES that yet need to be worked into the mechanical invention priorities:
1898 Control bar and Swing Seat for Hang Glider:
1908 Cable-stayed Triangle Control Bar For Hang Glider:
The wing used in gliding the hanging 8 pilots of the Paresev glider had
already been invented, but its ornamental design along with the Fleep
wing did found the modern hang glider Rogallo wing hang glider. The
triangle control bar had a very long history prior to 1963.
The Rogallo hang glider had been invented at least by Francis Rogallo in 1948 or before, but may have been invented in the first decade of the 1900s also!
Treat later claimants as trying to have what is not theirs. Even Rogallo did not fully appreciate how much invention had already occurred.
Look at Domina Jalbert's 1944 patent illustrating even advanced flexible-wing know-how. Consider the early Princeton Sailwing.
The graphic will be updated to include the 1908 occurrence of a full cable-stayed triangle control frame as we know it today. 1908
Later, George Spratt fully instructed along the same line in 1929 for the triangle control frame.
In 1905, see arm-hang in control frame on a special hang glider.
hang glider pilot standing in control frame flying his hang
glider. Who will be building and flying a replica of this? Who is the
pilot? Hanging and feet standing in control frame. Who will
modernize, power-assist, and show this gem in contemporary moments?
Also, a follow-up
"I rejected the "A" frame and all the cables" [but actually he did not! Consider just hard-boning the same stay needs],
says Barry Palmer about his 1960 hang glider designing that made him
first in the class of gliders that would become known as Standard
Rogallos (of course a fuzzily-named class of one did not have the name
for the class at that time!). The control frame forward struts
that stayed the triangle control frame part permitted some
experimentation on centers of lift. We have a guy knowing clearly
about the bag of aviation already-invented tricks of the trade! And YET,
even in his aluminum-framed version he kept at his rear the triangle
control frame as he used forward stays in a rigid format so he could do
test piloting at various centers...he was pioneering; he would climb to
different spots on the two forward stays and climb back near the
triangle during various parts of the flight. Image of the 1960-designed part that was flown by Palmer in 1961.
John Spealman, a friend of Mr. Palmer also flew Palmer's first hang glider on
the first flights in December of 1961: "who went to UC Berkeley along with me in
See Microlight Flying
magazine, February 2011, article on Barry Hill Palmer. The article mixed
up Tony Aspinal name for what should have been Tony Prentice. A confusion in the
article in a paragraph: Aussies did not foot launch a hang glider until early
1970s; Moyes ski-launched off a slope in 1969. Barry Palmer foot launched a hang
glider in 1961. The article missed the opportunity to refer to Bensen's
use of hung pilot behind triangle control frame in 1954c or to the stark 1908
Breslau hang glider with full hung pilot behind cable-stayed triangle control
Barry Palmer, father of practicing
foot-launched Rogallo-wing hang gliding; he used four different control
arrangements, including use of a strut-stayed triangle control frame
(introduced in hang gliding at least by the cable-stayed triangle
control frame in the Breslau gliding club hang glider with pendulumed
pilot ...icon of most of today's hang gliders). His video does not show
all of his eight or so versions, but the video is classic---a start
that inspired a huge river of hang gliding influence that sparked the
first great Otto Meet of May 23, 1971. Barry Hill Palmer still
lives and is responding to historical research e-mails. He was inspired
by the Fleep airfoil which had followed Francis Rogallo's leadership
over the flowering of Rogallo's understanding of the stiffened Rogallo
Wing, an invention of total limp airfoil that then could be stiffened
with confidence. The influence from the Palmer hang gliding formed a
river of influence that reached 23 nations before the other rivers of
influence of the flexible wing joined the larger Palmer river.
he would fly one of his hang gliders behind the aluminum triangle
control bar that he would push on to move his pendulumed hips and legs.
Later he used also a seat. He
was arriving to the Spratt control wing that would rule hang gliding's
popular use of the various kinds of modern hang gliders (monoplanes,
replicas of vintage gliders, various NASA derivatives of Rogallo winged
kites and gliders.
Actually: Palmer had the U and triangle trapeze AT ONCE WITH A COMMON base bar.
Palmer made and flew many separate distinct versions of Rogallo winged
hang gliders. He then moved right along to get an ultralight going.
Meanwhile Richard Miller picked up on Palmer's lead and started to
communicate.... while Palmer just went straight ahead with more great
designing and flying. Palmer is yet understudied; when his
full story gets well told, a high pedestal will be made by the hang
glider movement for this guy.
SEE: http://members.aol.com/hiitec/kite/trike.html Barry Palmer: "FIRST FLIGHTS IN DECEMBER, OF 1960, this is possibly the predecessor of the earliest example of a modern hang glider. It is one of 7 or 8 or
so gliders built by the designer The first, which was built of salvaged
aluminum tubing, polyethylene sheeting and drafting tape, had an
out-of-pocket expense of $10.89." "The
spars and keel were 22 feet in length, so launches of the 40 lb
aircraft could be accomplished easily even in no wind. Flights got up
to 600 feet in length and as high as 80 feet. The last of the series flew in the summer of 1962, and had a swinging seat, which expanded the flying capability well beyond the "true hang" armpit supports."
Barry Palmer varieties of modern hang gliders, pilot foot-launched. Pendulum seat in one version. Send facts: firstname.lastname@example.orgBP
Foot-launched, pilot-hung from frame below Rogalloish wing, significant
gliding, variety of under-frames. What were the activities of
those who knew about Palmer's flights and hang glider? See all of John Bentley's comments and his analysis of emails with Palmer in OZreport. [ ] Data requested. EnterData
Faust flew over 7 feet barrier getting minor lift from body shaping during parabolic flight-jump to make Olympics. Bio (roots of 45+ years of kite/hang glider publishing).
Tony Prentice began an innovative presence in hang gliding history. See his timeline.
23 January 1960 - 13 April
1998 Patrick de Gayardon is born; he will change the face
of gliding as a winged skydiver.
born. Later to become perhaps the first full-time professional female
hang glider pilot. "This is the official website for Judy Leden
MBE, 3 times world hang-gliding champion, stunt pilot and world record
Cecil E. Craigo,
Harry A. James
Leo J. Hand
filed on March 17, 1961
Click one of the images
to get full document.
When power is off or
malfunctioning to off level,
then the resultant system is a hang glider. In 1974, Stephen
C. Murray would cite this Rogallo-based patent in his hang glider patent,
The class of Standard Rogallos (fuzzy term; class one Rogallo) was started by Barry Palmer in 1960 (flown in 1961-62) and
had almost no following after 1975 as safer-by-far hang gliders came on
the scene. The class was populated by the Miller-Palmers and the
ski-kite of Dickenson and much more improved by the Burns-Dickenson;
the 1969 Prentice;
then the Moyes and Bennett standards, Kilbo Kite, Eipper I, Seagull I,
and homebuilts all around the world who bought plans or were sent plans
free where they innovated on their own standards or broke loose to new
ground. By 1972 the commercial "carbon copies" (Ken de Russy) populated
many flying sites. Then commercial competition brought replacements to
the standard class members. The four-boom stiffened Rogallo wing was
firmed in the Charles Richards wing of the Paresev program and also in
the Fleep program; that wing of the 1960-1962 was given to the world
and found followed by Mike Burns for SkiPlane or Ski Plane in Australia
in 1963; the same four-boom wing was found in the Burns-Dickenson
1865 and the Dickenson wing 1963 and 1964. Bill Moye and Bill
Bennett joined their late developments to the huge Palmer flow of
influence to help form the high counts of activity in the
1970s. EnterData +
Article: "EXCLUSIVE: I Flew the Flex-Wing" title at top edge of November 1961 Popular Mechanics magazine. " I flew the Pterodactyl flex-wing" [Rare non-fiction $79+]
Jan. 1, 1962 Paresev photo. Notice that the Paresev series included topless hang glider wing. In 1999 Dan Johnson would write that the La Moulette Topless
was first topless (circa 1997--reference and detail needed here). Moyes
went topless. Others. But in 1962, topless was already the craze in
Charles Richards design team for the Paresev kite-glider wings rolled
out in January 1962 forward.) Topless Paresev... hmmmmm.
Powered Rogallo-winged hang glider...Shell _______News, photo on cover ???
Tom Purcell features his FlightSail on p. 37, April, 1962, of EAA's Sport Aviation.
See note from L&S 22 regarding FlightSail.
See note in L&S 22 regarding Jim Hobson and his 1962 hang glider. [ ] . go after archives. He
had a triangle control bar and parallel bar. He worked as
director/producer for the Lawrence Welk Show (southeast corner building
of Wilshire Blvd and Ocean Ave. in Santa Monica, CA. He came into the
Low & Slow office with photographs; he kept them; he had a status
thing going, but still had his interest in hang gliding. His archives
might be available from his family or relatives or newsletter of the
corporation. Santa Monica historical society can determine the 1971
tenant corporation of the building. It is not known if Jim Hobson is
still living. There is a publicist contact reachable online for
research. We confirmed the spelling of the last name.
[ ] See L&S 22 on letter from
1962 envisioning commander and his one-stiff-down, rack and pinion
cable controls; combine this with the Faust one-down-or-up and the
2007-Snellgrove PG one down. Faust has the sketch of the stiff one-down
or one-up (depends on perspective! with firm back-plate that allows
pitch from use of legs and allows hand-squeeze of wing-tip controls for
yaw and roll; he has it that no cables would be used laterally or
fore-aft for the pilot-as-fuselage; foot-launch into prone held by the
one-up tube; the tube would be pre-arced and have some flexibility to
it; the pre-arc allows some give during turbulence; the tube would be
streamlined; the tube's arc would be seen from lateral view while front
view is very straight; the cables for roll-yaw would go up through the
one-up tube. Pilot would be fully streamlined; hands on controls
would be near one's heart and sternum on chest and inside of
streamlined encompassing prone harness. Compromise
would be two lateral stay streamlined cables from the back plate at the
pilot interface going to the upper wing frame in order to reduce mass
of the wing---the tradeoff would be calculated (see Miller's article on
this matter). Pilots feet are placed in holder that allows thigh
muscles to push or pull to move the pilot's mass fore or aft on a rail
that is part of the back plate as the one-up tube does not move.
Faust's method keeps flying space fully clear for free-space viewing of
the air and land; pilot does not see any control bars, sees no stay
struts, sees no triangles, sees no parallel bars, sees no stay cables;
s(he) lightly pushes with thighs to move pilot-mass forward, lightly
pulls with thigh muscles to move pilot-mass aft; pilot squeezes left
hand to operate left-tip control, squeezes right hand to operate right
tip control. Teflon skid plate on the front of the harness with Kevlar
backing would allow for ground or water ski or skid if chosen instead
of dropping one's feet. Low-wind landing flare to land on feet: quick
mass to aft and then upon getting flare, release feet for touchdown.
Faust cleared a bar that
was higher than the world's high jump record by jump-flying, body as
wing. Form uses a higher aspect ratio than the flop form which would
arrive in 1968 or so by Dick Fosbury; the lower body aspect ratio for
aerodynamic lift was compensated for some body types by quicker
Who was Bill McLachlan (Marina Tropicana) and whose office
did he wander into to discuss in Australia the NASA Rogallo wings and
other Rogallo wing uses that were happening in the United States? What
were they discussing? How strongly were they aware of the 1958-1962
NASA and Ryan and Rogallo matters? It turns out that that
office guy was VERY AWARE of things to our topic. These guys were in
Australia wondering what to do with the prior technology. They did not
have comprehensive knowledge, but very significant amount. Their
meeting ....and their evolution comes into play in the Australian
Rogallo scene. Hawkesbury River and Marina Tropicana will
be showing Australians Rogallo wings embedded in
Paresev-look-alike wings VERY OFTEN ...soon enough here. [ ]
DID BILL MOYES EVER SEE A ROGALLO WING in the the newspapers or at the
river????? Did Bill Bennett? EnterData + See Paresev flight log.
Jan-April. of 1962..(details,
please): prototype of Rogallo wing kite-glider-hang-glider built in
Bankstown Aerodrome (Australia) after models and half-sized aluminum
devices were explored. NASA information fed the scene. The makers were
two partners responding to the drive of Bill McLachlan. So, thanks to
Bill McLachlan for pushing for the action. These guys designed
and built the foundations of Australian Rogallo presence... SkiPlane
that was "capable of free-flight" ...and it had the airframe with the
triangle control bar presaged by George Spratt of 1929 and also an
earlier glider club that used the cable-stayed triangle control bar;
see innovation in OZReport.com forum. [ ] . The WING, certainly a key
element did well; had they made even deeper use of NASA data, they
could have done better sooner. Their final version was publicly
demonstrated April 1963, just a month before Dickenson was invited by
his water-ski club to begin thinking about making a flat kite for
the water-ski shows; Dickenson by Sept. 8, 1963, came up with a
Rogallo kite for a show. Neither the SkiPlane nor the much
later Dickenson tow kites and ski-kites escaped the prior WING
that had been collaboratively invented for over 50 years and made
by others. Eventually the SkiPlane makers were receivers of some failed
legal action spawned by Dickenson's urging of one of Dickenson's
customers; that action was put aside as the Aerostructures people
showed the depth of their NASA-based priorities in Australia on key
aspects of ski-kites-gliders; the Aerostructures added the Dickenson
ski-kite to their manufacturing line-up of products; in doing so, the
Dickenson ski-kite was shaped up to aviation standards by the company; and to note: finally the quality approached the Paresev-1B quality of 1962 (Paresev wing had alreadyachieved non-luffing
sails, battened sails, scalloped trailing-edge sails, fold-up via
rotation of four members of the airframe, mass-shifting of
hanging-pilots from single point hang, airframe to push and pull for
the mass-shifting cause of attitude control, successful flying and
landing in free-flight...all in 1962; thus FAI in 2007 did not do their
job as it trampled on the prior inventors of what went into the Palmer
and Paresev realms and inventors of same mechanics in the first three
decades of 1900s.). Want to know the
inventive roots of the modern Rogallo hang glider? Look to Rogallo,
Bikle, Palmer, Richards, Spratt, Espenlaub ...for starters. Look to ALL
(over 20+) of Francis M. Rogallo's patents for clues. See Paresev flight log.EnterData +
Monoplane hang glider photo on cover of January 1962 Argosy magazine. ,
can hang with more weight from one hand than the other off of two upper
parallel beams. This is not armpit, but hand-palming only, it appears;
however, armpits probably could be used as well as a swing seat; or as
Leonardo sketched for one of his hang gliders: use a stand-on platform
and swing mass by standing and pushing. Article: "I Fly the Gluepot
Gliders." Issue Date: JANUARY, 1962; VOLUME 354, NUMBER 1 Featured in
THIS issue: COVER: "I Fly the Gluepot Gliders". Cover photographed for Argosy
by Richard Hewett. Collector's item at eBay now by several
sellers. (Ken has a copy also). Clip from part of the cover
shows the hang glider: Several copies of the issue are for sale in
BURNS...aeronautical engineer (?) studies NASA material and involves to
Ski-Plane with triangle control frame for a aqua-kite-glider using
ornamental echo of Paresev 1B or Ryan or Fleep or all. This same guy
severely advanced the Dickenson effort. Credit for WING must go yet to
NASA-Rogallo. Aerostructures Mike Burns factor has yet been under-studied and under-appreciated. Click to enlarge to see the NASA-derived stiffened Rogallo WING.
Later others followed.
NASA Paresev hang glider.
AUXILIARY BOOM CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ROGALLO TYPE WING AIRCRAFT Peter F. Girard
A half-sized did-not-fly
ski-kite of May of 1963 was made and towed (quite late in the
evolution of what would be part of the class of Standard Rogallos, as
two years earlier Barry Palmer seemed to have initiated what would
become the class of Standard Rogallos. Send your notes: DickensonRogallo@hanggliderhistory.com Grafton, N.S.W. Australia.. Send facts on other Standard Rogallos to: email@example.com By Sept. 8, a larger kite was kited at a festival---no hang gliding involved.
Regarding September 8, 1963, non-hang-gliding kiting at a festival: Historical article: http://grafton.nsw.free.fr/ski_wing/The Daily Examiner, October 21, 1963. The
kite was mentioned as "ski-wing." In Australia in 1969: "kite"
was still applied by John Dickenson for public media when he spoke of
his kite. He did not foot-launch his kite until 1968 when he
crashed in a parking lot. He left hang gliding.
Bill Bennett ornamental design patent was later approved in U.S. for
him, NOT A MECHANICAL PROCESS INNOVATION PATENT, BUT AN ORNAMENTAL
DESIGN PATENT. All of the mechanical aspects of the Dickenson and first
Bennett and first Moyes kites were priorly invented before 1963; only
specific product appearance was patented by Bennett; his kite's
ornamental appearance for the patent was very close to the ornamental
appearance of the Dickenson-Burns product appearance. All the
issues from Burns, Dickenson, 60's Moyes and 60's Bennett were
embedding the stiffened Rogallo wing proved and ornamentally finished
in the 1962 NASA Paresev 1B wing
The class of Standard Rogallos was started by Barry Palmer in 1960 (flown in 1961-62) and
had almost no following after 1975 as safer-by-far hang gliders came on
the scene. James Hobson in 1961 started his project and completed in
1962; he showed his triangle control framed Rogallo type hang glider
with A-frame on a Lawrence Welk TV show; he was featured with photo in
E.A.A.'s magazine Sport Aviation in 1962; his test site was Dockweiler;
he brought his archive materials into the Self-Soar Association and Low
& Slow magazine office in circa1971; Joe Faust made list of the
borrowed materials (list is available now online for world view; his
doings impacted readers and viewers. The class was also
populated by the Miller-Palmers and the ski-kite of Dickenson and much
more improved by the Burns-Dickenson; the 1969 Prentice;
then the Moyes and Bennett standards, Kilbo-Kite, Eipper I, Seagull I,
and homebuilts all around the world who bought plans or were sent plans
free where they innovated on their own standards or broke loose to new
ground. By 1972 the commercial "carbon copies" (Ken de Russy) populated
many flying sites. Then commercial competition brought replacements to
the standard class members.
The Paresev mimics stopped and were finally considered so much less safe that
flying wings developed from 1975 onwards emphatically.
The future of the Paresev Rogallo wing mimics with tweaks will still remain
non-empty as people explore the most simple; but the matter becomes more
hazardous as hang gliders not fit for what advanced hang gliders might do might
be used inappropriately. Prudent guide: use within the safe limits what is
Click for larger.
SCHGA historian Neil Larsonreports: "I discovered a transcript of a 1963 Steve Allen show -in the opening "intro" there is a fast segment of 12 photos
of Steve Allen actually in a hang glider! flying it (tethered tow) in a
street behind the studio! By the way it is a recorded TV show of Frank
Zappa (1963) clean cut in a suit (no mustache) playing a bicycle like a
vibraphone. But you will need to only watch the first 60 seconds to see
the hang glider!" Here a URL for the show with the clip of concern at
its beginning: gFZSAS1 Video: "1963 Frank Zappa on Steve Allen Show"
January 26, 1964, on Australia Day---a
kite goes up in smoke; it had flown as a hang glider: the Mark I
was burnt in the day's celebrations. The ski-kite had not yet been flown in free-flight,
only kiting mode. Notice that we are THREE FULL YEARS after Palmer
foot-launched a Rogallo standard hang glider and foot-landed; Palmer
already had used TWO main airframe control parts: triangle and parallel
bars; and a hanging seat. Already SkiPlane had triangle control frame,
weight-shifting, towing, and some gliding sectors. Australians
continue to benefit from prior art. Aerostructures deepens its bite
into NASA. Mark III of JD was made by now in 1964.
Ski-wing morphs to Mark III. How did input by Mike Burns and Rod
Fuller affect the evolution the Mark 1 to Mark III? Were images,
communication inputs, perhaps FURTHER articles from Ryan and NASA; a
lot of time frm the Spring of 1963 to the Australia Day burning.....to
peruse the benefits of Paresev and Ryan, especially with all the
attention being given to the ski-kite that was gradually finding its
way into the ornamental Paresev look after the kiting experimentations
for the prior six months. How much NASA is now
flowing into Grafton arena? That is a $64,000 question.
March: Domina Jalbert privately tests Jalbert parafoil. Earth shakes. D. C. Jalbert
Domina Jalbert USA Patent 3285546, Filed October 1, 1964. (Issued: Nov. 1966) What work went on to arrive at this point?
Rogallo's first patent had ram-air forms, but not ram-air wing. Jalbert
goes to form double surfaced wings entirely by ram-air while still
having the wing made of loose flexible textile or thin sheet material.
Particular airfoils can be precisely specified; the wing can be bagged
without struts; yet in the air the wing becomes semi-firm. This is a
departure that changes the world. With later advances, even the forward
keels are removed by others. Innovation on this branch of wings is not
over yet. Assignee for the patent: Space Recovery Research Center. MULTI-CELL WING TYPE AERIAL DEVICE D. C. JALBERT
Send facts: Barish@hanggliderhistory.com
David Barish modern hang glider of the paraglider (true hang gliders in
the gliding-parachute family of hang gliders ---follow also gliding
conicals, gliding parafoils or gliding Jalbert wings, and
Rogallo-gliding parachutes...all are also considered as free-flight
kite system type of hang gliders. DB1 gDB2 DB3 DB3
First Jump With the Sailwing Which Was the First Jump Of A Gliding Parachute -
Photo by David Barish.
During the month of August 1965, there were a number of gliding
parachute designs being constructed and tested, but none were being jumped
from an aircraft. That changed, however, on August 6 of that year when the
Barish Sailwing opened over the Lakewood Sport Parachuting Center in New
Jersey. The Norseman aircraft climbed to 3700 feet and the jumper, Lee
Guilfoyle, USPA D-50, exited the plane over the 60-acre sand drop zone.
Because all of the dummy drops that had been made using a static line with a
pilot chute assist system, it was decided that the first live jump would be
made with that system. The Sailwing opened almost instantly. The inventor,
David Barish of Barish Associates, and the jumper, Lee Guilfoyle of
Parachutes, Incorporated, made parachuting history that day. Parachuting had
been changed forever! This was the first jump made on a gliding parachute.
See " http://www.parafame.org " and go
to Significant Moments In Parachuting, then scroll down to 1965.
Bill Moyes becomes
the second or further human to foot-launch a
Paresev-like-Rogallo-winged hang glider or kite (See Barry Palmer, at
least, in 1960, 1961, 1962) Related: +ABCnews+ +Spirit of Dreams+
Completed in March 1967...Barry Palmer's Rogallo-winged Paraplane,
a powered hang glider tricycle giving echoes of the Ryan vehicles in
the small. N7144 UNKNOWN DATE FOR THE following N4411Skyhook powered hang glider. EnterData+
Still Ski-wing and Delta Wing kites are towed at water-ski competitions. Go into the 70s in Cypress Gardens, Florida.
Without visible means of support by Richard Miller Type: Book Language: English Publisher: [Los Angeles, Printed by Parker, 1967] RM1
Popular Science , Aug. 1967, "Aqua Glider" artwork ...biplane shown. Article inside???? ____==>EnterData+ This
follows the SkiPlane water-based kite-hang glider period of
1962-?. But the art shows a biplane primary glider-kite.
This kind of showing adds to the personal flight fever that also fed
the 1970s' boon in hang gliding. Copies of the issue are for sale
on eBay. Rogallo wing kite-gliders were alrady on waterways from at
least 1962 if not sooner.EnterData+
Bill Moyes and wife Molly are towed in a tandem flight with surfboard and floats and the technology exhibited by the 1929 George A. Spratt triangle control frame or A-frame:
received your note with the shot of Molly and me on the ski plane; this
shot was taken in 1968 when Molly and I were 36 years old.
The sail was made before we used battens. The old single surface
gliders of the day suffered from radical centre of pressure movement at
high angles of attack. This made them easy to land as the
pressure centre moved forward, but it made them hard to hold a
climb. You can see a rope connected to the front wires; this rope
was tightened as you pulled in on the bar and bent the keel down
(before kingpost days); this generated lift at the trailing edge and
made the climb more manageable.
You can also see
the tow rope faintly connected to a boat release welded to the forward
tube; this was my first experiment with towing from centre of mass."
Note: Bill Moyes in February of 2008 at age 75 is building an updated ski-plane and might invite Molly to fly tandem again.
Rogallo-winged kite or structure or hang glider could be founded on the
tetrahedron that is centroidally supported for shaping. Did Bell have
this or was he ever edge boned? Applications direct for hang gliders
are still unfolding. The patent covers robust multi-celled structures.
Think tiny and large; think tail and pod; think camping; think PG and
HG; think controls; think combinations with tensegrity and