Topic 28057
Kiteplane Dynamics predicted from classic Fighter Maneuvers
[See also:  Kiteplane Challenges]
Fighter plane dynamics are closely applicable to predicting fast massive kiteplane flight, alone or in swarms, with key concepts like "overshoot", to apply to a kite window as well as a dogfight. We knew most of this, but not from standardized validated art, and there are some deep ideas fresh to AWE.

Sample section from WP-

Specific energy

Energy is a primary factor in controlling and maneuvering an aircraft. If an attacker has too much energy, it may be easy to get in range but difficult to prevent an overshoot. Too little energy and the attacker may not be able to get in range at all. If the defender has more energy than the attacker, an escape may be possible, but too little energy and the defender will lose maneuverability. In aviation, the term "energy" does not refer to the fuel nor the thrust it produces. Instead, thrust is referred to as "power". Energy is the state of the fighter's mass at any given time, and is the result of the power. Energy comes in two forms, which are kinetic and potential. Kinetic energy is a function of the fighter's mass and speed, while potential energy is a function of its mass, gravity and altitude. The combined potential and kinetic energy is called the total energy, or "energy package". Because the energy package is the combination of mass, speed and altitude, a fighter flying at low altitude but a high speed may have the same total energy as a fighter of equal mass, but flying at a low speed and high altitude. Generally, the fighter that is able to maintain a higher energy package will have the advantage. However, a high energy package alone does not improve maneuverability, because optimal turn performance typically occurs within a range near a certain speed, called the "corner speed". Also, increasing the mass of the aircraft would increase its energy package, but angular momentum would hamper maneuverability, causing the heavier aircraft to turn wider circles. Instead, the fighter's useful energy is calculated by dividing its energy package by its weight, determining its specific energy (total energy per unit weight). A fighter with less mass will generally be more maneuverable than a fighter with more mass, even if energy packages are equal, because the lighter aircraft has more specific energy. "Specific power", on the other hand, is the thrust divided by weight, and the fighter's ability to generate excess specific power aids the craft in maintaining its specific energy longer when forced to turn at an energy-depleting rate. Typically, the fighter with higher energy (energy fighter) will make an "energy move" like an "out-of-plane maneuver", to maintain the energy advantage, while the fighter at an energy disadvantage (angles fighter) will make an "angles move" such as a break turn, trying to use the opponent's energy to their own advantage.[11]
Aug. 25, 2019   Dave Santos

Continuing to cherry-pick from WP Fighter-Plane physics-

"A faster, heavier aircraft may not be able to evade a more maneuverable aircraft in a turning battle, but can often choose to break off the fight and escape by diving or using its thrust to provide a speed advantage. A lighter, more maneuverable aircraft can not usually choose to escape, but must use its smaller turning radius at higher speeds to evade the attacker's guns, and to try to circle around behind the attacker."

This is third-party validation of what has long been proposed here about AWES flight dynamics across the spectrum between soft power-kites and hot rigid kiteplanes. No one seems to have noticed in kiteplane literature that inferior turning rate is the main trade-off to designing for highest sweep ratio. Quick turning may not be part of the harvesting mode, but would be critical in shortline overshoot conditions anywhere at the edge of the kite window.

The ship-kite players calculated that power-to-weight alone advantaged them, not realizing, for example, that a KiteShip OL or SkySails parafoil have a higher turn rate at equivalent power. It was kite sports that alerted us to turn rate dominance in various operational modes. Then we indentified our high turn-rate low turn-angle "dancing hippo" dutch-roll sweep modes that promise high airspace efficiency.

This is not the end of moderately scaled hot kiteplanes in AWE. They can winch-tow or aerotow launch and runway-land and operate long-lined; if not catapult up, sweep shortlined, and bang-land on a "perch". The M600's E-VTOL was a marginal "solution" to the topic here, imposing its own risks. The most likely cause of the recent crash was likely hover insufficiency, although control failure is also a major risk (many failure modes covered in past years).