[Tad E.] [Seedwings] [ ==>EnterData+ ]
March2009Lift Feb2009Lift Jan2009Lift Dec2008 Nov2008
To all: Discuss, add to, enhance EnterData+
Thanks to all those who have been sending note
lifts. Wow! Anytime is fine.
The coming March issue will feature Alex Morillo's joined-wing project.
Have a note: Use click=> Enter Data +
and advance the Timeline: [===Timeline===].
What are the practical applications of sounds from flying hang gliders, if any; send in your ideas and experiences.
Fasten your seatbelts
before exploring this link tree: THIS.
"Above it all" 10 minutes. PG, Winging, HG, expressions
|How NOT to Land a Hang Glider |
Consider the 1909 Weiss (among others) forward lower skid braced by a forward down brace setting the skid lead area. Consider sturdy elastic TCF legs, skis instead of wheels. Consider WWW (wheels when wanted; RWW rollers when wanted; SWW skids when wanted; PWW pontoons when wanted ...
Consider Joe Greblo run outs. Consider morphable wing parachutals. Consider perching. Consider landing nets. Send in your landing and "watering" ideas: Editor@UpperWindpower.com
|Yet ICE, yet: PPG Synergy
|Send your number in to Editor@UpperWindpower.com
|AVIATION AIRFOILS & AERODYNAMICS REFERENCES|
Aero design tutorials
NASG AIRFOILS database--- show superimposed airfoils and POLAR curves
AIRFOIL ORDINATES DATABASE
Several excellent articles on airfoils for sailplanes...
NACA REPORT ON AIRFOILS 1921 online - optional 6mb download
includes wind tunnel test results on all major airfoils
to that time. Outstanding !
EXCELLENT interactive animation showing wind tunnel model of wing
Eppler, R., Airfoil design and data, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, NewYork,
2D Wing calculation
NASA aerodynamics school
XFOIL WEBSITE ( use Profili front end ! )
NACA 4 digit interactive airfoil generator
AIRFOILS and AIRFLOW
AERODYNAMICS REFERENCE DATA U.K.
AIRFOIL DESIGN REFERENCE BOOKS
http://dreesecode.com/other/aflprimer.pdf AIRFOIL PRIMER
http://dreesecode.com DESIGNFOIL Airfoil Analysis and generator tool
DESIGN DISCUSSION FOR LIGHT SAILPLANES
http://www.continuo.com/marske/ MARSKE's Main Site
here is link to ProfiliKatalog Stuttgarter
ver 2 of Katalog
2nd new book by Althaus
detail listing of airfoils covered......
Gottingen airfoils link and other aero info
By the way, at this link is a well done comparison
chart for airfoils at ONE MILLION RE.
NETSCAPE DOES NOT WORK
Emanuel Benard, created the page. His main page is
where you can find his contact info.
The next site is a part of the Virginia Tech Aerospace and Ocean
The guy who wrote all of this (W.H.Mason) wrote also very nice
electronic book about the computational aerodynamic:
You can not have such a list without the formal Eppler site:
Nice comparison of Eppler and XFoil:
The Panda Site (you also mentioned it ):
Another nice program (PABLO):
A massive database for a lot of airfoil coordinates:
And the attached software (Profoil):
The last (but not least) is the WinXfoil which is really nice try to
take the XFoil and pout it in a nice GUI for windows.
NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI)
NASA LIBRARY on AIRFOILS
NASA REPORT 824- SUMMARY OF AIRFOILS
History of AIRFOIL development
APPLIED AERODYMAMICS CLASS
It has a built in cad program and the ability to test your design
UIUC airfoil database
CRIS HEINTZ airfoil lesson
AIRCRAFT FABRIC COVERING
http://www.mittlerbros.com/ PUNCH & FLARE TOOLS race car chassis supplies
seems to give reasonable estimations for static stability and center of gravity.
Tedlar Tape and Fabric Covering choices
UV resistant tape for Tedlar covering perhaps
OHIO STATE AVIATION homework and slideshow
SEE HOW IT FLIES - AERODYNAMICS TEXTBOOK
BEDE Design series sheets (all of them )
Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics
A Potpourri of Aerodynamics goodies, even has Racecar aerodynamics
Aeronautics NACA Tech Reports http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/
Theory of Flight (Australian site)
How Airplanes Fly
Giving Newton more credit for a change
Propeller Efficiency Calculator with Tip Speed
Propeller Tip Speed Calculator
Calculates Propeller Tip Speed
See How it Flies
Whitt's Flying Page
Aerodynamics For Students
D.J. Auld, University of Sydney
Applied Aerodynamics: A Digital Textbook
Desktop Aeronautics, Stanford, California
Beginner's Guide To Aerodynamics
NASA Glenn Research Center
See How It Flies
Desktop Aeronautics, Stanford, California
Desktop Aeronautics, Stanford, California
Naca 4/5-Digit Airfoils
aus: Aerodynamics For Students, University of Sydney
Thin Airfoil Theory
aus: Aerodynamics For Students, University of Sydney
Lifting Line Theory
aus: Aerodynamics For Students, University of Sydney
AIRFOIL FORMAT TRANSLATOR
WING ANALYSIS W/ SWEEP TWIST AND TAPER
HI LIFT DESIGN
Propulsion by Propeller
Propeller and Engine theory ground school
|Vestas Wind Systems|
|Identify and discuss structures: http://www.energykitesystems.net/images/whatisthis111.jpg|
MEANS FOR AERIAL FLIGHT OCTAVE CHANUTE
|TrikeBuggy 103 Delta Video Files|
|Harnesses .. a visit http://www.willswing.com/order/Z5_sizingordering.asp|
|Dear Hang Glider Manufacturer,
Hoping this reaches you and yours well.
PS: Dave Santos has suggested a secondary use of EKS: elevator launch of hang gliders.
|Did they cover this topic about cows?|
|Some rooting fun from joy to free flight: Mary Poppins.|
|Stored energy from kite systems will affect assisted hang gliding.|
|Chuck is back. Chuck Slusarczyk. CGS. Hawk. http://tinyurl.com/ChuckSlusarczyk8888Lift|
|Clip for study from: Dr. Inman Harvey|
"" Autonomous Glider
|http://www.vole.ch/cgraph/vr09/ Sail is partially clear. ATOS VR2009|
|http://www.birdinfo.co.za/rarebirds/46_montane_bone_bird.htm Soaring to eat bones.|
|http://www.google.com/patents?id=24UYAAAAEBAJ Wing sail|
|Chuck is back (one of the fathers of the renaissance) ...then he ultralighted ...see the Hawk early promo: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfiVk_gVkmA c1980s|
Adam Malysz - SGP Zakopane - 139,5m
|http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/men/article5726286.ece Paramotoring with engine off brings hang gliding ....|
|Bird awareness? http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/stories/2009/02/15/12459e21d437|
|Les Sharp has a new web presence: http://wingstaiwan.com/|
ALEX MORILLO is inviting our look and comment on his joined-wing hang glider project. Look for more image and text release soon. Attention: Brett Snellgrove
|http://www.flickr.com/photos/aerotowrelease/ Tad Eareckson systems deserve study.|
|http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Prehistory/mid-19th_century/PH3G7.htm See already the A-frame and wheels for trike. Félix Du Temple's 1874 monoplane|
|Horten X, H XI, H XII, H XIII, H XIV, Parabola & Jet Bomber|
|""The successful completion of this route or one with a similar content will rank as a World’s first by capping the “CAP 1111” by paraglider. A “CAP” is a designation given to those vol bivouac flights that satisfy some basic criteria; a paraglider or hang glider and on foot are the only means of travel - with a 10% upper limit of the total distance that may be travelled on foot."" Source.
http://KAP444.org Trans Alpine Paraglide expedition Chris Scammell
Pierre Bouilloux, one of the fathers of vol bivouac flight....
Late 1970's: Didier Favre, Laurent de Kalbermatten, and Freddie Keller ::
Trans Alpine Paraglide expedition Chris Scammell
Hang gliding hopping around the world and even across the oceans .... Rules? Hydrogen from use of sun to split water to obtain launch assist off water surfaces? Send in your ideas!
|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGxVCkgPCPM Prone PG|
|Regarding February 21, 2009 at Sylmar Flight Park:
Joe Greblo's daily note on the web is a winner for me; the short Windsports note is bookmarked. His one sentence invite to all to level the LZ and weed it ... "before flying" pulled me in.
Rome had many tips on getting the lock open at the gate. Thanks Rome. Or is it "Roman" or both? At age 80, Rome is full of flight life and stories of gold and MJ. He admitted me into the Sylmar Hang Gliding Association's non-affiliated related 5S Club, now that I am 66. Sylmar Senile Seniors Soaring Society. Apparently Larry Chamblee is the 5S Club tee-shirt-distributing president. Glad to be a member ...
|FAA Glider Handbook|
|SLHG Self-launch hang glider|
|Fence soaring FS |
Artificial ups throughout flatland. New commuter paths in the air.
|Beach-berm soaring BBS EnterData+|
|PG Believe It or Not!|
|Vintage Hang Gliding at Little Mountain, San Bernardino|
|1930 09 21 FIRST US NATIONAL GLIDER MEET ELMIRA NY |
"Run the rubber rope for the soarer or glider.... run, run. :Let go! No noise. "
The narration is almost as much fun as the flying.
Gliding 1930 Tow the glider up via motorboat.
|Sport gliding in the 1920s|
|http://ewake.wfubmc.edu:88/library/publications/pdfs/amc1992_10.pdf re: Gilbert Aldrich|
|Wills Wing manuals|
|Baily-Moyes Dragonfy ... Flight and Operations Manual 2000|
|Past Moyes gliders|
|Current Moyes gliders|
LiteFlight is owned and operated by Bill Moyes. Bob Bailey is one of the original designers of the Dragonfly Bob Bailey is one of the original designers of the Dragonfly, and is arguably the most talented Dragonfly pilot in the world. Bob is based in Florida, however regularly travels to Australia to assist with manufacturing. Bob also frequently travels to customers around the world to assist with assembly and training. |
|Altitude attitude ... check yourself about your landing approaches.|
|The life of sprogs ... (send in your sprog stories) EnterData+|
|Half-bakery: Smart-powder-packed hang glider? The powder is carried to launch. A trigger starts the powder into a self-assembly into a full-up useful atomically-perfect hang glider. Clear! Off into the big blue. EnterData+
|Inspectable flying wires? EnterData+ What is the actual status of the flying wires right now? What service can my flying wires give the flight right now? How has the condition of the flying cables changed since today's "whack" at the LZ? Need the replacement rite be so mysterious? How much of the safety margin is left in my set of flying wires right now? What non-destructive inspection methods can be used? Electrical signals? Resistance? Magnetic signature? Sound signals under tension? High accuracy length measures? Photo-comparisons? X-ray? Strand tension differentials? Multi-input to expert-program analysis? Parameters at at a given temperature? How do I know the condition of new cables for my HG? What is the ultimate breaking strength (UBS) right now, not last month? Life expectancy? What life is left in the rig right now? Drag bite on bare cable vs filled cable vs wrapped cable vs faired cable?
Article1 "Composite Rigging’s breakthrough lay in finding a way to both reduce the cost of making the rods and at the same time improve the security of the end fittings. We have to go back to the fiber optic industry to see how this came about."
Chafe protection? Fatigue? Work hardening? Moisture? UV? Migration of domains? What else? Seals? Fairing? Heat-shrink? Can continuous winding be applied to stainless steel cables to advantage for hang gliding? Potting? Aramid versus PBO versus carbon vs stainless steel vs piano wire? Terminals? What does assembly and disassembly ... and trucking and storing do to our cables and at what rate? Upfront costs? Lifetime costs? Ultimate breaking strength (UBS)? Will fiber rigging ever replace stainless-steel rigging for the flying wires of hang gliders? EnterData+
Hang glider “Target" was created by a design team of Aeros Ltd.|
|Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) might recommend that "breakdown" be changed to "pack." The breaking of something has negative images and meanings to it. Breakdown areas near LZs might be changed to "packing" areas with the attention at careful protective packing actions for the hang glider. Pack the cables for best protection; pack the LE material for best protection, etc.|
Are you an instructor?
Small-to-large-kite-train approach of launching skyhook to form elevator for launching hang gliders.
|Age 65+ and flying hang gliders? EnterData+ Move to unite into a world-around club. Obtain a discussion group. Care for the special concerns involved with older-aged hang gliding. Name of online forum? What would be a good name for the group? Moderator position is open.|
1. Instructor appreciating his or her own attitudes in preparation for expanding one's service.
|Wind Lines Hawaii PG|
Greg DeWolf .. . fine instructor trained by Joe Greblo is instructing currently at Dockweiler Hang Glider Flight Park. In 1962 Jim Hobson of Lawrence Welk Shows flew a Rogallo Wing hang glider at the dunes. In 1965 Richard Miller and friends flew Bamboo Butterfly there. During the 1970s the site was available. Greg DeWolf was trained by Joe Greblo in 1978. Soon thereafter Greg obtained and ran Hang Gliders of California in Santa Monica, CA. Today, February 25, 2009, Ash Wednesday for Joe Faust, Greg DeWolf ushered Faust back into hang glider official instruction with five flights on the Wills Wing Condor. DeWolf appreciated hearing that in 1908 a pendulumed pilot flew a hang glider behind the cable-stayed standard triangle control frame or A-frame.
Faust very much appreciated the lesson, instruction, tips, and demonstrated kiting. A firm wind allowed handling some challenges. Greg corrected Faust's inward thinking to outward viewing. Faust reported that he could not have been more delighted than to be ushered back to the sky by Greg DeWolf. Next day Faust mailed his renewal to USHPA for his membership #005 (Joe had assigned #001 to Dick Eipper and chose #005 as a symbol of "family" during a phone call from Joe's home then in Venice, California; Dick accepted the key role) along with donation toward General Fund and some also for the safety and education program; this is in honor of Greg DeWolf's hang gliding life of service. A founder found his way back via inspiration from Joe Greblo, Andy Beem, and Greg DeWolf of Windsports ... and the spirit of Jonathan, each members of the Living-Legend Lifters scroll (which scroll is not complete; send your nominees for Members Set #001 and for Living-Legend Lifters to Editor@UpperWindpower.com )
Greg DeWolf did the great Fly America trip from Sylmar's Kagel launch above Sylmar Flight Park all the way across America to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina; the hang glider trip was done point to point without onboard power, but with vehicle towing for some of the launches. The trip took five months and was written up in five articles in Hang Gliding. See 1988 New York Times. Greg participated in 37 conferences, clinics, and hang glider talks across the USA to advance hang gliding safety and image. In recent 2008 he returned to California and is now instructing hang gliding at Dockweiler Flight Park for Windsports.
See Returning to Earth, Part I and II 1986 by Greg DeWolf.
Landing matters: All are invited to send landing notes to Editor@UpperWindpower.com
Bold, highlight, and font is altered for study.
Mr. Paul Montville
Exemption No. 9756
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
In the matter of the petition of
UNITED STATES HANG GLIDING
for an exemption from §§ 61.52(a)(3)
and 103.1 of Title 14, Code of
PARTIAL GRANT OF EXEMPTION
On August 20, 2004, Ms. Jane DePanfilis, Executive Director, United States Hang Gliding Association (USHGA), P.O. Box 1330, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80901, petitioned the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on behalf of USHGA for an exemption from §§ 61.52(a)(3) and 103.1 of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). The proposed exemption, if granted, would allow USHGA members to use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category rating provided the experience was obtained while towing an unpowered ultralight vehicle. It would also allow USHGA members to use an aircraft that does not meet the definition of an ultralight vehicle as specified in § 103.1(b) and (e) to tow an unpowered ultralight vehicle.
The petitioner requests relief from the following regulations:
Section 61.52(a)(3) prescribes that a person may use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with a weight-shift-control or powered parachute category rating.
Section 103.1(b) prescribes that an ultralight vehicle is a vehicle that is used or intended to be used for recreation or sport purposes only.
Section 103.1(e) prescribes that an ultralight vehicle is a vehicle that, if powered, weighs less than 254 pounds empty weight, excluding floats and safety devices which are intended for deployment in a potentially catastrophic situation; has a fuel capacity not exceeding 5 U.S. gallons; is not capable of more than 55 knots calibrated airspeed at full power in level flight; and has a power-off stall speed which does not exceed 24 knots calibrated airspeed.
The petitioner supports its request with the following information:
The petitioner states that it has represented more than 125,000 hang gliding and paragliding pilots since its inception. USHGA currently has approximately 10,000 active members to whom it provides numerous services. It is a member of the National Aeronautical Association and the Air Sports Council. USHGA represents its members’ interests with the FAA, the National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and other Federal and state agencies.
USHGA asserts that safety is its primary goal. It has observed that in hang gliding, as in other forms of aviation, there are two factors very important to flight safety: the quality of initial pilot training and the degree to which pilots maintain currency of skills and knowledge, as measured against an objective set of practical standards.
The petitioner states that in the past it has taken concrete steps to address an unacceptably high fatality rate in hang gliding. The petitioner notes that it achieved a tenfold reduction in fatalities during this effort. It attributes this reduction to: improved pilot training; improved hang glider design, to include the testing and certification of hang gliders to consensus standards; and the establishment and promotion of a culture within the hang gliding community that values safety, training, objective proficiency standards, good pilot judgment, and maturity.
The petitioner states that it has conducted clinics for the training and certification of hang gliding instructors since 1976 and has worked diligently to develop and promote superior training methods and training programs. The petitioner asserts that its efforts to foster safer training were threatened by the introduction of part 103 and that it responded by petitioning the FAA to grant relief permitting two-place flight and instruction.
The petitioner further notes that the continuing development of powered ultralight vehicles made the aero-tow launching of hang gliders possible. Later, the development of aero-tow vehicles progressed to where they could be utilized for towing hang gliders carrying two people. That development permitted the use of aero-towing for two-place hang gliding instruction. The petitioner believes that the increased availability and use of aero-towing for two-place pilot training has increased the opportunity for pilots to maintain proficiency and currency, thereby contributing to an improvement in safety. The petitioner also notes that it obtained an exemption to permit the use of an ultralight vehicle to tow a hang glider.
The petitioner states that in order to preserve and perpetuate the safety gains USHGA has made over the past 28 years, it must maintain accessibility to high quality, cost effective training. The petitioner states that two-place instruction is the most effective method of training in hang gliders and that aero-towing provides the most practical means for conducting this training.
USHGA states that aero-tow tandem training provides an efficient and effective training process by reducing the burden on both students and instructors. It effectively helps to offset the shortage of instructors by increasing the individual instructor’s efficiency. Successive aero-tow tandem training flights are accomplished without the need for multiple breakdown/transport/setup cycles. This efficiency greatly enhances student retention and results in significantly increased training time, airtime, and skill development. The petitioner also asserts that instructors can train a larger number of students in optimal conditions. The aero-tow tandem training method increases access to instruction and reduces the financial burden on the instructor corps.
The petitioner notes that the maintenance of pilot proficiency and pilot currency within the pilot community is as important as the provision of basic instruction. Aero-tow launching makes it possible for pilots to fly and stay current in areas where opportunities for foot-launching are limited.
The petitioner states that aero-towing allows for hang glider training and hang gliding flights in large areas of the country that do not offer suitable foot launch sites. More than 70 percent of the United States is suitable for aero-tow schools and flight operations. Much of this area is not currently used for training purposes due to the lack of viable foot-launch sites and a dearth of active instructors.
The petitioner contends that continued access to aero-tow capable aircraft and to skilled tow pilots is, therefore, vital to preserving access to the most effective methods of instruction. This access is vital to maintaining hang glider pilot proficiency and facilitating hang gliding outside areas with airspace congestion.
USHGA currently has several hundred ultralight tow vehicle pilots who have been recognized by USHGA as having the requisite skills and knowledge to tow hang gliders under the provisions of Exemption No. 4144.
The petitioner further states that the provisions set forth in the new rule, “Certification of Airmen and Aircraft for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft” (the Sport Pilot rule), will require the vast majority of existing tow vehicles to be certificated and operated under its provisions. These aircraft must be operated by FAA-licensed pilots. The new rule does not permit the holder of a sport pilot certificate to tow an ultralight vehicle. The pilot must hold a private pilot certificate and meet the provisions of § 61.69. The petitioner states that all of USHGA’s current tug pilots (with the potential exception of those piloting part 103 vehicles) will ultimately need to acquire a private pilot certificate to continue towing without compromising the health and safety of the sport.
The petitioner states that although the new rule provides that ultralight experience obtained in weight-shift-control aircraft can be applied toward the requirements for a private pilot certificate, the majority of the towing activity of USHGA’s members is conducted in three-axis control, fixed wing vehicles.
The petitioner states that the provisions of the current rule will likely cause economic and training accessibility hurdles for many of its fixed-wing tug pilots. These difficulties may preclude some of these pilots from obtaining private pilot certificates. In addition, there is concern that some tug pilots will believe that the training required is both unnecessary and cost prohibitive. USHGA believes that some tug pilots will discontinue their participation in the sport and that this will result in a decrease in safety.
Under Exemption No. 4144, tow pilots are required to have a minimum of 100 hours of powered flight time and demonstrate towing proficiency to a program administrator. The petitioner notes that the FAA requires a minimum of 40 hours of flight time for a private pilot certificate. Therefore, the petitioner contends that under its program, even its least experienced and newest tow pilots have at least two and one half times more airtime than the FAA requires for a private pilot. The tow pilots who transition to a private pilot certificate generally have acquired more than 100 hours of flight time, with many having in excess of 1,000 hours of towing airtime.
The petitioner contends that given that the modest population of tow pilots and their already vast experience it would be in the public interest, and in the interest of the sport, to permit tow pilots to apply their experience in ultralight vehicles toward a private pilot certificate with an airplane category rating.
USHGA states that there are unique requirements for an aircraft or ultralight vehicle to aero-tow a hang glider, many of which are not readily apparent to the nonspecialist. These requirements can be met by specially designed three-axis-control aircraft or weight-shift-control aircraft. Chief among these unique requirements is the ability to maintain a high degree of aircraft control at extremely low airspeeds. The petitioner lists, in detail, several characteristics of hang gliders and aero-tow vehicles.
Prior to providing a discussion of the petitioner’s previous exemptions, the petitioner states that engine, airframe, and operational requirements for safely towing two-place training hang gliders while withstanding the cyclic loads inherent in normal training operations place ideal ultralight tow vehicles outside the current weight limits of
part 103. Consequently, special purpose-built vehicles in both three-axis control and weight-shift-control designs are presently utilized. Vehicles exceeding the weight provisions of part 103 are needed to preserve and further improve the safety of aero-towing operations. These aircraft will ultimately be certificated and operated under the new rule; however, the petitioner contends that an exemption for their operation during the transition period is necessary.
The petitioner specifically notes that it has investigated every aircraft with the potential for providing safe, economical, aero-towing and has concluded there are no standard or primary category aircraft suitable for aero-towing hang gliders. The petitioner also notes that existing ultralight vehicles generally fail to meet the criteria for safe, economical aero-towing of hang gliders. Ultralight vehicles with high horsepower engines generally cannot be flown slow enough to tow hang gliders. Those ultralight vehicles designed to fly slowly employ lower horsepower engines in airframes with reduced structural strength. Consequently, the petitioner believes that specially built ultralight vehicles and only a few amateur-built experimental aircraft have provided the only options to safely and economically tow two-place hang gliders.
The petitioner hopes that certificated production designs will become available to tow hang gliders and that the current fleet of ultralight vehicles that were custom built to have a towing capability will be certificated under the new rule. The petitioner, therefore, requests that its petition be granted during this transition period.
The petitioner requests that this exemption be applicable to three-axis-control and weight-shift-control aircraft. The petitioner suggests that the FAA grant its petition using parameters comparable to those that have been provided in an exemption to part 103 for float ultralight vehicles equipped with one float and two 15-pound outriggers. The petitioner also suggests permitted uses of vehicles subject to the exemption. The petitioner also requests certain changes to the conditions and limitations in Exemption No. 4144. The petitioner recommended changes in vehicle weight limitations, the elimination of Condition No. 3, and a revision of Condition No. 5 to state the pilot must possess a current pilot rating issued by USHGA or a USHGA Novice (level 2), for a recreational pilot, or a Student (level 0), for a student pilot, under the supervision of a USHGA certified instructor.
A summary of the petition was published in the Federal Register on April 10, 2007 (72 FR 17984). No comments were received.
The FAA's analysis is as follows:
The FAA has fully considered all of the petitioner’s supportive information and has determined that a partial grant of exemption would be in the public interest and maintain an equivalent level of safety. Additionally, the FAA notes that subsequent to the filing of this petition USHGA has changed its name to the United States Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association (USHPA). In this analysis, the FAA will, therefore, refer to the petitioner as USHPA/USHGA.
USHPA/USHGA specifically requests that its members be allowed to use time accrued while acting as ultralight tow pilots under Exemption No. 4144 to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with an airplane rating. Although § 61.52 permits a person to use aeronautical experience obtained in ultralight vehicles to obtain certain certificates and ratings, that section does not permit this experience to be used to obtain a private pilot certificate with an airplane category rating. Section 61.52 was added to part 61 as a result of changes made by the final rule, “Certification of Airmen and Aircraft for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft” (69 FR 44772; July 27, 2004). The preamble to that rule specifically recognized that the new section did not contain provisions for a person to apply aeronautical experience obtained in ultralight vehicles to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with an airplane rating. The preamble noted “The FAA has considered allowing the same sort of credit for fixed-wing ultralight pilots to meet the requirements of a private pilot certificate with aircraft category ratings. However, this crediting was viewed as a significant change to the aeronautical experience requirements for this certificate. The FAA considered such a change outside the scope of the original proposal and significant enough to justify full public notice and comment. The FAA expects to address this issue in a separate future rulemaking and may favorably consider exemptions to this rule.”
The FAA, however, did not propose to revise § 61.52 to permit a person to use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category rating in the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), “Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modification to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors with a Sport Pilot Rating” (73 FR 20181; April 15, 2008). Although the FAA recognizes the value of flight experience gained while operating ultralight vehicles, the agency proposed that the provisions of the current rule expire on January 31, 2012. In setting forth this proposal, the FAA specifically noted that it “did not intend for these transition provisions to be indefinite in duration. Since operators of ultralight vehicles should have transitioned to the new airman certificates prior to the date of this proposal…the FAA believes that retaining the provisions for the use of aeronautical experience in § 61.52 is no longer warranted.” The proposed expiration date of January 31, 2012, was selected to provide “a sufficient amount of time to use this aeronautical experience to obtain the new certificates.”
The FAA recognizes the value of flight experience gained while towing unpowered ultralight vehicles such as hang gliders under the provisions of Exemption No. 4144. The FAA has evaluated USHPA/USHGA training programs and the operation of ultralight vehicles under the provisions of Exemption No. 4144 and believes that the experience may be used to meet the general aeronautical experience requirements specified in the introductory language of § 61.109(a) (i.e., 40 hours of flight time, 20 hours of flight training, and 10 hours of solo flight training). However, the FAA notes that certain aeronautical experience required by § 61.109 must be obtained in an airplane. This exemption, therefore, does not permit aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the aeronautical experience requirements specified in subparagraphs (a)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) of § 61.109. Additionally, it does not permit this aeronautical experience to be used for the issuance of a private pilot certificate with other than an airplane single-engine land rating. The FAA also specifically notes that the relief provided by this exemption is limited only to aeronautical experience acquired while towing unpowered ultralight vehicles, to include the time spent returning from a released tow.
The FAA believes that it would be safe, appropriate, and in the public interest to apply aeronautical experience gained while towing unpowered ultralight vehicles to meet certain aeronautical experience requirements for the issuance of a private pilot certificate with an airplane single-engine land rating. In light of the FAA’s recent proposal to eliminate the transition provisions contained in § 61.52, the agency encourages persons who seek to use the relief provided by this exemption to act accordingly.
The FAA specifically notes that at no time were ultralight-like vehicles that exceed the limits set forth in § 103.1(e) (commonly referred to as “fat ultralights”) authorized to conduct towing operations. Therefore, any aeronautical experience logged in a vehicle that does not meet the provisions of § 103.1(e) will not be accepted to meet the aeronautical experience requirements of § 61.109 for the issuance of a private pilot certificate with an airplane single-engine land rating.
The petitioner also requested relief from § 103.1. The FAA has in the past recognized that it is in the interest of safety to permit training flights to be conducted in two-place unpowered ultralight vehicles that comply with all sections of part 103 except § 103.1(a) and (b) (see Exemption No. 4721 issued to USHGA). The FAA has also recognized the safety and value of allowing individuals to provide flight instruction in two-place vehicles that exceed the limits set forth in § 103.1(a) and (e). Additionally, Exemption No. 4144 has allowed the towing of unpowered ultralight vehicles (hang gliders) by USHPA/USHGA members operating powered ultralight vehicles that meet the requirements of part 103. That exemption has a current expiration date of June 30, 2010.
The petitioner argues that to effectively tow two-place unpowered ultralight vehicles, a vehicle that is heavier and more powerful than allowed under § 103.1(e) must be used (i.e., “a fat ultralight”). To accomplish this task, the petitioner has specifically requested that an aircraft that does not meet the definition of an ultralight vehicle as specified in § 103.1(b) and (e) be used to tow unpowered ultralight vehicles. The petitioner’s request would effectively expand the applicability of Exemption No. 4144 to cover those vehicles. However, with the introduction of the Sport Pilot rule, the FAA has implemented regulatory provisions that require such operations to be conducted by certificated aircraft. As a result of these changes, aircraft considered to be “fat ultralights” are now required to be registered and issued airworthiness certificates. These aircraft must also be operated by a person possessing a pilot certificate.
Additionally, although the petitioner describes the aircraft for which an exemption is sought as ultralight vehicles, these “vehicles” do not meet the definition of an ultralight vehicle under part 103 and are considered aircraft. Although the FAA permitted by exemption the very limited use of two-place ultralight-like aircraft for training purposes under part 103, those exemptions (e.g., Exemption Nos. 3784 and 4721) were very narrowly drafted. Those exemptions contain a number of conditions and limitations, to include who was authorized to conduct specific operations. Apart from the very limited operations permitted under these exemptions, the FAA never permitted the use of heavier, two-place aircraft unless the aircraft met all applicable airworthiness standards and the operator fully complied with all applicable FAA regulations. The rationale to now require the certification of these previously exempted vehicles is discussed in both the NPRM and final rule, “Certification of Airmen and Aircraft for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft” (67 FR 5368; February 5, 2002 and 69 FR 44772; July 27, 2004, respectively).
The FAA believes that certification of these aircraft will help ensure their airworthiness and, therefore, enhance safety. Allowing these aircraft to operate without airworthiness certification would undermine the purpose of the Sport Pilot rule and, therefore, would not be in the public interest. The petitioner’s request for an exemption from § 103.1 (b) and (e) is, therefore, denied.
The FAA’s Decision
In consideration of the foregoing, I find that a partial grant of exemption is in the public interest. Therefore, pursuant to the authority contained in 49 U.S.C. §§ 40113 and 44701, delegated to me by the Administrator, United States Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association is granted an exemption from 14 CFR § 61.52(a)(3) to the extent necessary to allow USHPA/USHGA members to use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle while towing an unpowered ultralight vehicle to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category rating and single-engine land class rating, subject to the conditions and limitations listed below.
Conditions and Limitations
1. Each person seeking to use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the aeronautical experience requirements for the issuance of a private pilot certificate under this exemption must:
a. Have obtained that aeronautical experience while towing an unpowered ultralight vehicle;
b. Have been a registered ultralight pilot with USHPA/USHGA when that aeronautical experience was obtained;
c. Have documented and logged that aeronautical experience in accordance with the provisions for logging aeronautical experience specified by USHPA/ USHGA and in accordance with the provisions for logging pilot time in aircraft as specified in § 61.51;
d. Have met USHPA/USHGA requirements for towing unpowered ultralight vehicles when that aeronautical experience was obtained;
e. Have conducted the towing under a specific individual authorization issued by USHPA/USHGA when that aeronautical experience was obtained;
2. Aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle may only be used to meet the aeronautical experience requirements specified in the introductory language of § 61.109(a) which requires an applicant to “log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in § 61.107(b)(1).” Aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle may not be used to meet the aeronautical experience requirements specified in subparagraphs (a)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) of § 61.109.
3. Each person seeking to use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the requirements for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category rating and single-engine land class rating must present to the examiner at the time of application for the practical test:
a. A copy of this exemption; and
b. Evidence indicating that the requirements specified in Condition No. 1 have been met.
4. USHPA/USHGA must provide the Manager, General Aviation and Commercial Division, Flight Standards Service (AFS-800), with a list of those persons who have applied for the issuance of a private pilot certificate using the relief provided by this exemption. This list will be provided annually at the beginning of each calendar year.
This exemption terminates on September 30, 2010, unless sooner superseded or rescinded.
Issued in Washington, DC, on September 16, 2008.
James J. Ballough
Director, Flight Standards Service
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