Single-Layer Material Wing for Kiting   (SL)
Single-Skin Wing for Kiting   ::  SS 
Soft or with spars ...
  • Materials:
    • Fabric, film, textile, sheet,       Single-Skin  (SS)   |    Single-layer (SL)
    • Look one day for graphene sails for SL
    • SS separate flows and have thin thickness                                                                      
  • The wiki needs much work:      wiki/Soft_single_skin_kite  

  • Here is respected materials that may not be very soft; a sheet of carbon fibre might not be very "soft."  

  • Terms in the literature and some challenges: SS :: single surface  (challenge is that there still is an aerodynamic upper surface and lower surface to a single-layer material wing; that makes two surfaces and a challenge for termiinology).  Often "single" opposes the different ram-air-filled cellular parafoils that feature an upper layer of material and a lower layer of material integrated by lines or ribs that integrate the upper layer and the lower layer; such wings have still an aerodynamic upper surface and lower exterior surface.  So, just use terms in context and sub-culture that works. Here we are pausing to note some challenges.   The term challenge resolves, in part, when SS is rather "single-skin" and not "single surface."  But then "skin" is a challenge for material; if "skin" allows many different materials, then a resolution seems in place.

  • Some considerations regarding single-layer (SL) material wings for kiting:
    • SL does not have cells to capture water, sand, insects, air.
    • SL oes not have the added mass of a ram-air two-layer parafoil wing.
    • Lift-to-mass ratio
    • Mass for a given area is minimal in SL wings.  Compare having two layers of material for the same area instead of just one layer!    Big reduction here!
    • The number of tethers to the ground for a SL for kiting may vary from one to a huge number of tethers (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ..., 100, ..., 1000, ...)
    • Bridling for a SL wing for kiting may vary depending on design, choice of material, size, and purpose.

  • Bill Ola Rasmussen  kite Falken
    • "The NPWC Falken is a sparless single skin kite which is flown directly from kite lines, using no bridle."  All lines go to its anchor.
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  • Peter Lynn  
  • Rogallo wing       wiki/Rogallo_wing   |
  • Sleds.  
    • Allison Sled.   William Allison
    • Scott Sled
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  • NASA parawings    

  • Dave Culp, KiteShip: OutLeader™ wing for kiting and sailing (special sector of kiting).

  • SS sails for sailing craft  [our works have sailing craft as a special sector of kiting featuring two flow media and allowance for tension in hard masts]

  • SS wings  in paragliding and kite hang gliding
  • Playsails                               Play Sail
  • SS flags and banners, shaders, canopies. or architectural kites and awnings
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  • SS wings in some energy-kite systems or AWE (airborne wind energy)
  • Windbow kite
  • Skybow  rotating-ribbon wing
  • Leaf-wing kites
  • Paper kites of SS
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